On the admix of hi-tech with voodoo!

Looking at a recently released “vaccine” for malaria, I was examining their adjuvanting systems, hidden within which are the same “we bow to the Almighty JENNERINTHESKY” found throughout this discipline.  So I collected this bunch of raw materials, from the journals, to establish my own review mechanism. I’ll entitle the work:

On the admix of hi-tech with voodoo!

Now, I am simply placing the afforementioned articles as a display – a kind of literary installation art work. Enjoy:

From: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3871206/

“Multiple clinical trials have evaluated the relative performance of AS01 and AS02 for the induction of CD4 T cell responses. Across a variety of antigens including those for malaria (RTS,S, and LSA-1), tuberculosis (M72), and HIV (gp120/Nef/Tat) there is a consistent finding that the liposome formulation AS01 induces a greater frequency of antigen specific TH1 cells than the squalene containing AS02 [13,14,49,50]. Most of these cells are multi-functional expressing combinations of IFN-γ, TNF, IL-2 and/or CD40L. Importantly this clinical finding was predicted in pre-clinical comparisons of AS01 and AS02 with the RTS,S antigen. In both mouse and primate models TH1 responses were enhanced to a greater degree with AS01 than AS02 [51,52], which correlated with the magnitude of protection against sporozoite challenge. The inclusion of the saponin QS21 in both AS01 and AS02, but not included in the adjuvants studied here may shape the selection of the optimal adjuvant formulation. Thus the selection of the optimal AS adjuvant cannot be directly compared to the present studies, yet both sets of data clearly demonstrate that adjuvant formulation plays a critical role in optimal vaccine development.”

And their conclusion has interesting insights!:

Based on the reproducible protective efficacy and strong TH1 response elicited by ID93/GLA-SE we have advanced the SE formulation of ID93/GLA into clinical trials to evaluate safety and immunogenicity in humans. However there were no clear reasons to eliminate either ID93/GLA-liposome or ID93/GLA-Alum based on the current data. The final selection of the optimal formulation of ID93/GLA among SE, liposome and Alum may require side-by-side testing in humans similar to what was required to select AS01 over AS02 for 72F and RTS,S for TB and malaria respectively. Other considerations for final adjuvant selection will depend on safety considerations and the likelihood of regulatory approval. To date the FDA has not approved oil-in-water based emulsions as vaccine adjuvants (although an FDA advisory committee recently recommended approval of GSK’s pandemic influenza vaccine containing AS03), whereas both alum and the alum-containing AS04 adjuvant are included in approved vaccines. Thus GLA-Alum may have a straightforward regulatory pathway compared to other adjuvant formulation platforms.

Then on “Liposomes as vaccine delivery systems: a review of the recent advances” there’s this:
Abstract

Liposomes and liposome-derived nanovesicles such as archaeosomes and virosomes have become important carrier systems in vaccine development and the interest for liposome-based vaccines has markedly increased.

A key advantage of liposomes, archaeosomes and virosomes in general, and liposome-based vaccine delivery systems in particular, is their versatility and plasticity.

Liposome composition and preparation can be chosen to achieve desired features such as selection of lipid, charge, size, size distribution, entrapment and location of antigens or adjuvants.

Depending on the chemical properties, water-soluble antigens (proteins, peptides, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, haptens) are entrapped within the aqueous inner space of liposomes, whereas lipophilic compounds (lipopeptides, antigens, adjuvants, linker molecules) are intercalated into the lipid bilayer and antigens or adjuvants can be attached to the liposome surface either by adsorption or stable chemical linking.

Coformulations containing different types of antigens or adjuvants can be combined with the parameters mentioned to tailor liposomal vaccines for individual applications.

Special emphasis is given in this review to cationic adjuvant liposome vaccine formulations.

Examples of vaccines made with CAF01, an adjuvant composed of the synthetic immune-stimulating mycobacterial cordfactor glycolipid trehalose dibehenate as immunomodulator and the cationic membrane forming molecule dimethyl dioctadecylammonium are presented.

Other vaccines such as cationic liposome–DNA complexes (CLDCs) and other adjuvants like muramyl dipeptide, monophosphoryl lipid A and listeriolysin O are mentioned as well.

The field of liposomes and liposome-based vaccines is vast. Therefore, this review concentrates on recent and relevant studies emphasizing current reports dealing with the most studied antigens and adjuvants, and pertinent examples of vaccines.

Studies on liposome-based veterinary vaccines and experimental therapeutic cancer vaccines are also summarized.

Liposomes and liposome-derived nanovesicles such as archaeosomes and virosomes have become important carrier systems in vaccine development and the interest for liposome-based vaccines has markedly increased. A key advantage of liposomes, archaeosomes and virosomes in general, and liposome-based vaccine delivery systems in particular, is their versatility and plasticity. Liposome composition and preparation can be chosen to achieve desired features such as selection of lipid, charge, size, size distribution, entrapment and location of antigens or adjuvants. Depending on the chemical properties, water-soluble antigens (proteins, peptides, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, haptens) are entrapped within the aqueous inner space of liposomes, whereas lipophilic compounds (lipopeptides, antigens, adjuvants, linker molecules) are intercalated into the lipid bilayer and antigens or adjuvants can be attached to the liposome surface either by adsorption or stable chemical linking. Coformulations containing different types of antigens or adjuvants can be combined with the parameters mentioned to tailor liposomal vaccines for individual applications. Special emphasis is given in this review to cationic adjuvant liposome vaccine formulations. Examples of vaccines made with CAF01, an adjuvant composed of the synthetic immune-stimulating mycobacterial cordfactor glycolipid trehalose dibehenate as immunomodulator and the cationic membrane forming molecule dimethyl dioctadecylammonium are presented. Other vaccines such as cationic liposome–DNA complexes (CLDCs) and other adjuvants like muramyl dipeptide, monophosphoryl lipid A and listeriolysin O are mentioned as well. The field of liposomes and liposome-based vaccines is vast. Therefore, this review concentrates on recent and relevant studies emphasizing current reports dealing with the most studied antigens and adjuvants, and pertinent examples of vaccines. Studies on liposome-based veterinary vaccines and experimental therapeutic cancer vaccines are also summarized.

 

Advertisements

About greencentre

Non grant supported hence independent scientist, green activist, writer and forest planter.
This entry was posted in Uncategorized. Bookmark the permalink.

One Response to On the admix of hi-tech with voodoo!

  1. greencentre says:

    For reference, here’s an article on the nature of Sickle cell anaemia:

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3784812/

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s