History – by the CDC!

This is a long series of extracts from an online, pro-vaccination site. It’s to give scope to understanding the fuller impacts of vaccination history……..

1 – African Use of Variolation

Cotton Mather, a Boston minister (1663-1728), received a gift of a Libyan-born slave named Onesimus, who bore a scar from smallpox variolation in Africa. Mather inquired among other slaves and found that many had been variolated and thought themselves immune to the disease.

Later, Mather would read of variolation in English medical journals and promote the practice in Massachusetts.

 

2 – 1718 – Variolation in Turkey

In 1718, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu (1689-1762) had her son variolated in Constantinople by Dr. Charles Maitland. Lady Montagu, whose husband was ambassador to Turkey, had been disfigured by smallpox around 1715. She had heard about variolation upon her arrival in Turkey, and was anxious that her six-year-old son, Edward, have the procedure. In 1717, she wrote to a friend:

“…I am going to tell you a thing that I am sure will make you wish yourself here. The small-pox, so fatal, and so general amongst us, is here entirely harmless by the invention of ingrafting, which is the term they give it. There is a set of old women who make it their business to perform the operation every autumn…. The old woman comes with a nut-shell full of the matter of the best sort of smallpox, and asks what veins you please to have opened…. She immediately rips open that you offer her with a large needle … and puts into the vein as much venom as can lie upon the head of her needle…. Every year thousands undergo this operation…. There is no example of any one that has died in it; and you may believe I am well satisfied of the safety of the experiment…. I am patriot enough to take pains to bring this useful invention into fashion in England; and I should not fail to write to some of our doctors very particularly about it, if I knew any one of them that I thought had virtue enough to destroy such a considerable branch of their revenue for the good of mankind.”

  • Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, Letters of the Right Honourable Lady M–y W–y M–e: Written During her Travels in Europe, Asia and Africa. . . , vol. 1 (Aix: Anthony Henricy, 1796), pp. 167-69; letter 36, to Mrs. S. C. from Adrianople, n.d.

 

 

 

3 – 4/21/1721 – The First English Variolation

Lady Mary Montagu brought the practice of variolation to England, where she had Dr. Charles Maitland variolate her two-year-old daughter.

Lady Montagu would come under considerable criticism for advocating variolation, a practice that slowly began to spread as its ability to protect against smallpox became apparent. The results, however, were sometimes fatal: two to three percent of those variolated died of smallpox (in contrast to 20-30% who died after contracting smallpox naturally). [What %age of the population were “naturally” developing smallpox? That is, the jab killed 2-3% of recipients but, in that time, what percentage of the unvariolated caught and died of smallpox?] What’s more, variolated individuals could pass the disease on to others.

4 – 1721 – Boston Smallpox Epidemic

Smallpox raged through Boston in 1721, ending in 844 deaths. During this epidemic, physician Zabdiel Boylston, at Cotton Mather’s urging, variolated 248 people, thereby introducing variolation to the Americas. Of those variolated, six died. The case fatality for variolation was about 3%, and the disease case fatality was 14%. [See comment above.] [But, also, what percentage of the variolated later developed smallpox?] About 900 people left town for fear of catching the disease.

At Harvard, the chambermaid of Cotton Mather’s son Samuel contracted smallpox. Samuel’s brother Increase encouraged his father to have Samuel variolated by Boylston and Samuel survived the procedure.

Mather was widely criticized for his role in promoting variolation: a primitive grenade was thrown through a window of his house. The attached note threatened “COTTON MATHER, You Dog, Dam you. I’ll inoculate you with this, with a Pox to you.”

Reacting to the Boston outrage against inoculation, Mather wrote:

“I never saw the Devil so let loose upon any occasion. The people who made the loudest Cry…had a very Satanic Fury acting them…. Their common Way was to rail and rave, and wish Death or other Mischiefs, to them that practis’d, or favour’d this devilish Invention.”

— Cotton Mather, quoted in The Life and Death of Smallpox by Ian Glynn and Jenifer Glynn.

 

5 – 1738 – Promise of Variolation

A smallpox epidemic struck Charleston, South Carolina. Of the 441 people who were variolated, almost 4% died, while eighteen percent of people who were naturally infected died. [Same comment again] The results encouraged advocates of variolation. Meanwhile, the same epidemic reportedly killed half of the Cherokee Indian population in the vicinity.

 

6 – 5/17/1749 – Birth of Jenner

Edward Jenner was born in Berkeley, in Gloucestershire, England.

 

7 – 1757 – Infectious Nature of Measles Shown

Scottish physician Francis Home, MD, transmitted measles from infected patients to healthy individuals via blood, demonstrating that the disease was caused by an infectious agent.

“…Francis Home… attempted to produce mild measles by mimicking the variolation process. This process involved taking blood from an infected patient and inoculating it through the skin of an uninfected person. In this way he was able to transfer measles to ten of twelve patients. This experiment clearly demonstrated the presence of measles virus in human blood…”

–Michael B. A Oldstone, Viruses, Plagues, & History

 

8 – 1759 – Spreading Word of Inoculation

At the suggestion of his friend Benjamin Franklin, English physician William Heberden wrote a pamphlet called “Some Account of the Success of Inoculation for the Small-Pox in England and America: Together with Plain Instructions By which any Person may be enabled to perform the Operation and conduct the Patient through the Distemper.” In it he encouraged parents to inoculate their children against smallpox, detailing how they could do so themselves. Franklin added an introduction documenting the success of the process in Boston, and distributed the pamphlets in the American colonies for free.

9 – 1767 – Chickenpox: Disease Distinguished from Smallpox

English physician William Heberden was the first to give a detailed description that distinguished chickenpox from smallpox. He wrote:

These pocks break out on many without any illness or previous sign: in others they are preceded by a little degree of chillness, lassitude, cough, broken sleep, wandering pains, loss of appetite and feverishness for three days… Most of them are of the common size of the smallpox but some are less. I never saw them confluent nor very numerous. The greatest number which I ever observed was about twelve in the face, and two hundred over the rest of the body.

Heberden also noted that those who had previously had chickenpox “were not capable of having it again.”

 

 

10 – 1770 – Jenner Studies at St. George’s Hospital

Edward Jenner began studies at St. George’s Hospital in 1770. He studied for two years with surgeon John Hunter.

 

11 – 1770 – Protection by Cowpox Infection

Edward Jenner (1749-1823), an English doctor, became interested in the idea that previous illness with a disease called cowpox could protect a person from later becoming ill with smallpox. Jenner’s biographer claimed that Jenner heard this folk wisdom from a milkmaid: having caught cowpox from a cow, she believed herself, and her smooth skin, safe from smallpox.

Cowpox is an uncommon illness in cattle, usually mild, that can be spread from a cow to humans via sores on the cow. During an infection, dairy workers may have pustules on their hands. Sufferers can spread the infection to other parts of the body.

We know now that the cowpox virus belongs to the Orthopox family of viruses. Orthopox viruses also include horsepox virus, monkeypox virus and variolaviruses, which cause smallpox.

12 – 1774 – A Farmer Takes a Chance

Benjamin Jesty (1737-1816), English farmer and cattle breeder, inoculated his wife and two sons with matter from a cowpox lesion on one of his cows.

Jesty, having already contracted cowpox, believed himself protected from smallpox infection. When a serious smallpox epidemic hit his Dorset village, he, from his “great strength of mind,” took it upon himself to protect his family. His wife and children survived, and the boys, when challenged with smallpox inoculation in 1789, showed no symptoms. Jesty, however, had no interest in systematically testing his methods or publishing his results, and so his finding was largely forgotten. Upon his death, Jesty’s wife had his tombstone inscribed, “the first person (known) who introduced the cow-pox inoculation.”

 

13 – 1776 – Smallpox Becomes a Weapon of War

Of a force of 10,000 Continental Army soldiers in Quebec, about 5,000 fell ill with smallpox. A British commander may have deliberately intended to spread the disease by sending recently variolated civilians into Continental Army encampments.

The Continental task force commander, Major General John Thomas, died of smallpox. The unit retreated southward in May 1776. Arguably, this defeat preserved the status of the northern British colonies, permitting Canada to become the separate country it is today. John Adams wrote:

Our misfortunes in Canada are enough to melt the heart of stone. The smallpox is ten times more terrible than the British, Canadians and Indians together. This was the cause of our precipitate retreat from Quebec.”

— John Adams, quoted in Ian Glynn and Jenifer Glynn, The Life and Death of Smallpox.

 

14 – 1777 – Mandatory Inoculation for Continental Army

George Washington, commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, based at his headquarters in Morristown, New Jersey, ordered mandatory inoculation for troops if they had not survived a smallpox infection earlier in life—possibly in reaction to the inability of Benedict Arnold’s troops to capture Quebec from Britain the year before, when more than half of the colonial troops had smallpox. Recruits passing through Virginia were inoculated at Alexandria.

 

15 – 1792 – Stricter Regulations Passed for Inoculation

The Commonwealth of Virginia passed an act to consolidate previously passed acts regulating smallpox inoculation into one. The new act included a penalty of $1,500 or six months’ imprisonment for anyone willfully spreading smallpox in a manner other than specified by the act.

 

16 – 1793 –  Yellow Fever Decimates Philadelphia

After 31 years of absence, yellow fever returned to Philadelphia, killing thousands of city residents over a span of several months. As the then-capital and largest city of the United States, Philadelphia was home to both local and federal governments, most of whose members (including President George Washington) fled to escape the disease. The total number of cases was estimated to be approximately 11,000; the final mortality rate for the city was 10%.

Like many others, Philadelphia physician Dr. Benjamin Rush (1745-1813) observed the symptoms and spread of the disease closely, hoping to uncover some definite cause and means of prevention. Rush kept meticulous notes about his individual patients as well as about conditions in the city for many years. His notes ranged from the observation that “A meteor was seen at two o’clock in the morning, on or about the twelfth of September” to several remarks that, curiously, “Moschetoes” were “uncommonly numerous.”

Rush, however, did not seem to draw any conclusions about the presence of the mosquitoes in relation to yellow fever. He favored the “miasma” theory of the disease—literally “pollution”—which was widely accepted in Philadelphia at the time. Miasmatic theory argued that diseases like yellow fever were the result of bad air. In 1793, its proponents blamed the yellow fever epidemic on the miasma from a shipment of rotting coffee that had been dumped at the docks.

Among the other comments Rush made in 1793 was one about refugees from the French West Indies escaping infection from yellow fever as it struck the city. Though Rush did not know it at the time, this was no doubt because the men and women who had come from the West Indies had been exposed to yellow fever before and were thus immune to it.

Unfortunately, Rush took a mis-step in his assessment of another group as being immune to the disease:

From the accounts of the yellow fever which had been published by many writers, I was led to believe that the negroes in our city would escape it. In consequence of this belief, I published the following extract in the American Daily Advertiser, from Dr. Lining’s history of the yellow fever, as it had four times appeared in Charleston, in South 

17 – 5/14/1796 – Jenner’s Breakthrough

Edward Jenner tested the hypothesis that infection with cowpox could protect a person from smallpox infection.

Cowpox is an uncommon illness in cattle, usually mild, that can be spread from a cow to humans via sores on the cow. During an infection, dairy workers may have pustules on their hands. Sufferers can spread the infection to other parts of the body.

We know now that the cowpox virus belongs to the Orthopox family of viruses. Orthopox viruses also include horsepox virus, monkeypox virus, and variolavirus, which causes smallpox.

On May 14, 1796, Jenner inoculated eight-year-old James Phipps with matter from a cowpox sore on the hand of milkmaid Sarah Nelmes. Phipps suffered a local reaction and felt poorly for several days but made a full recovery. In July 1796, Jenner inoculated Phipps with matter taken from a fresh human smallpox sore, as if he were variolating the boy, in an attempt to challenge the protection from cowpox. Phipps remained healthy. Jenner next demonstrated that cowpox matter transferred in a human chain, from one person to the next, provided protection from smallpox.

Jenner was not precisely sure about the nature of the cowpox material he used. He suspected that cowpox actually came from horsepox; in other words, he speculated that cows became infected with the same agent that caused a similar disease in horses. Recent genetic analysis of old samples of smallpox vaccine have revealed that the samples were more closely related to horsepox virus than cowpox virus.

 

18 – 9/17/1798 – Word of Jenner’s Success Spreads

After the Royal Society rejected his report of his achievement, Jenner self-published a pamphlet called “An Inquiry into the Causes and Effects of the Variolae Vaccinae, a Disease discovered in some of the Western Counties of England, particularly Gloucestershire, and known by the name of the Cow Pox.” It outlined Jenner’s success in protecting James Phipps from smallpox infection with material from a cowpox pustule, in addition to 22 related cases. Initially, the Inquiry received little attention. This changed when Henry Cline, an associate of Jenner living in London, used dried vaccine material provided by Jenner to demonstrate once again that vaccination with cowpox material prevented future smallpox infection. From this point on, word about the Inquiry quickly spread.

[Just imagine what this material contained!]

 

19 – 1802 –  Vaccination Endorsed

Massachusetts became the first U.S. state to encourage the use of vaccination against smallpox. Dr. Waterhouse, the first doctor in Boston to obtain vaccine material, convinced the city’s Board of Health to sponsor a public test of vaccination. Nineteen volunteers were successfully vaccinated.

Initially, Waterhouse sought to retain a monopoly over smallpox vaccine in North America, refusing to provide vaccine material to other doctors without a fee or a portion of their profits. This monopoly led to efforts to obtain vaccine material from vaccination pustules on human patients, or via clothing carrying pus from vaccination pustules. In at least one such case, a pustule on the arm of a British sailor used to obtain such material was not, in fact, from vaccination, but from a full smallpox infection. Sixty-eight people died after material from the pustule was used to vaccinate patients in Marblehead, Massachusetts.

Eventually, other doctors began receiving genuine vaccine material from sources in England. After his initial monopoly was broken, Waterhouse shared his supplies without complaint.

[And so began the international business in Vaccines]

 

20 – 1802 – Vaccination vs. Variolation

Dr. Jean de Carro, a physician who indirectly helped to introduce vaccination to India, suggested that inoculation should be eliminated, saying, “It is inconsistent for a government to encourage vaccination and not forbid inoculation.” This was among the first of many efforts to encourage vaccination over variolation for its improved success and safety.

21 – 5/17/1803 – Origin of the Term Vaccination

At the first meeting of the Royal Jennerian Society, Edward Jenner insisted that the origin of the term vaccination, from the Latin for cow (“vacca”), be credited to his friend and fellow physician, Richard Dunning.

 

22 – 9/1/1803 – A Vaccination Expedition

King Charles IV of Spain commissioned royal physician Francisco Xavier de Balmis to bring smallpox vaccination to the Spanish colonies in the New World. De Balmis departed on a ship with 22 abandoned children and a host of assistants, planning to vaccinate the boys in sets of two throughout the trip so that fresh pustules would be available at any given time. He eventually reached Caracas. Despite only one of the children still having a visible cowpox pustule, De Balmis initiated South American vaccination. (All 22 children were eventually settled, educated, and adopted in Mexico, at the Spanish government’s expense.)

[Grim, eh? Would anyone seriously consider doing this today?]

 

23 – 1805 – First Compulsory Vaccination Attempted

Marianne Elisa of Lucca (Napoleon’s sister) became the first ruler to try making vaccination compulsory. She was unable, however, to determine a practical method of enforcement.

 

24 – 1810 –  Italian Physician Uses Cows for Vaccine Production

Gennaro Galbiati, director of the vaccine service in Naples, Italy, began retrovaccinating cows with human vaccine lymph. [What was this? Pus, presumably?!]  He then vaccinated people with the resulting animal lymph. [So, did the cattle then develop pustules, post being retrovaccinated with human pus?] His findings on vaccine from cows were expressed in these chapter titles from his 1810 memoir:

“1. Vaccination performed with vaccine from the cow manifests its effects much more energetically, without being more dangerous or less protective than humanized virus.” [But it was still, simply pus.]

“2. Vaccination performed with virus from the cow offers the advantage that no other diseases can be communicated by it.” [Virus? But we didn’t know of viral particles at the time, let alone being able to isolate them. He meant “Pus”….But, anyways, where was their sterile technique? How did they keep their pus clean!]

 

25 – 1813 – U.S. Vaccine Agency Established

The U.S. Congress authorized and James Madison signed “An Act to Encourage Vaccination,” establishing a National Vaccine Agency. James Smith, a physician from Baltimore, was appointed the National Vaccine Agent. The U.S. Post Office was required to carry mail weighing up to 0.5 oz. for free if it contained smallpox vaccine material—an effort to advance Congress’s ruling to “preserve the genuine vaccine matter, and to furnish the same to any citizen of the United States.”

[Birth of the CDC!!]

 

26 – 1817 – Cholera: The Pandemics Begin

Beginning in 1817, a series of deadly cholera pandemics swept over India, Asia, and the rest of the world. Scholars usually refer to a wave of seven cholera pandemics, and generally describe them as occurring 1817-23, 1826-37, 1846-63, 1865-75, 1881-96, and 1902-23, and 1961-present.  [Ongoing pandemic??!]

 

27 – 1/26/1823 – Jenner Dies

Jenner died of an apparent stroke at age 73.

 

28 – 1826 – Diphtheria Given Its Name

Diphtheria, which had previously been called by a variety of names, gained its official name from French physician Pierre Bretonneau (1778-1862), who called the disease diphtérite. The origin was the Greek word for “leather” or “hide,” which describes the coating that appears in the throat (that is, the pseudomembrane). Bretonneau also distinguished diphtheria from scarlet fever.

Bretonneau recorded the first successful use of tracheotomy in a case of diphtheria. This procedure, which had been used to treat other conditions, involves cutting an opening in the trachea and inserting a tube through the opening to allow passage of air and removal of secretions. Bretonneau had attempted the procedure several times before, but the patients died. Later, another French physician, Armand Trousseau (1801-1867), showed a survival rate of about 25% in the tracheotomies he performed on diphtheria sufferers.

 

29 – 1836 – Method of Increasing Potency

English physician Edward Ballard noted that cowpox transmitted from human to human seemed to decline in potency over time. He recommended choosing new strains of cowpox and reintroducing the pustule matter (lymph) back into cows to boost its potency. This method came to be used to supply sufficient material for vaccination.

[Thinking this through it has utterly no logic to it. But, hey, that’s no surprise……]

 

30 – 1840 – Britain Bans Variolation

William Farr in The Lancet characterized Britain’s National Vaccine Act of this year as inadequate, with five London children per day still dying of smallpox. The Act did, however, offer free vaccination for infants (the first instance of free medical service in the country) and banned variolation, a move heralded by the medical profession.

 

31 – 1846 – Faroe Islands Yield New Observations

Danish physician Peter Panum was sent to the Faroe Islands (located in the North Atlantic, between Iceland and Scotland) to study a measles epidemic there. He spent approximately five months on the islands, noting that although measles was traditionally a disease of childhood in most parts of the world, it “attacked almost the entire population [of the Faroes] without respect to age.” Panum hypothesized that the same isolation that generally protected the Faroes from exposure to illness also led to increased mortality when a disease did reach the islands. He wrote:

It is obvious, then, that prophylactic measures against the introduction and spread of foreign diseases are of very great importance in such places, where they can be put into execution, as, for example, on the Faroes; whereas they are of no importance where they are rendered impracticable by a great conflux of people and by other conditions, as in Copenhagen. Here [In Copenhagen], therefore, an edict of quarantine against measles would seem ludicrous, but the Faroe Islands would probably not have lost nearly 100 inhabitants if an edict directed against the introduction of measles had not been removed some years ago.”

Panum also took advantage of the isolated nature of the islands to study the transmission of the disease. He observed that the measles rash appeared approximately fourteen days after a person was exposed to infective matter, and that surviving the infection resulted in lifelong immunity against the disease.

The isolated situation of the villages, and their limited intercourse with each other, made it possible in many, in fact in most cases, to ascertain where and when the person who first fell ill had been exposed to the infection, and to prove that the contagion could not have affected him either before or after the day stated… In Fuglefjord, on Østerø, on account of my observations, I acquired the reputation of being able to prophesy. On my first arrival there, the daughter of Farmer J. Hansen, churchwarden, had recently had measles, but had then got up, and, except for a slight cough, was almost entirely well. All the other nine persons in the house were feeling well in every respect and expressed the hope that they would escape the disease. I inquired as to what day the exanthem [rash]

 

 

 

 

32 – 1853 – Mandatory Vaccination in UK

The United Kingdom Vaccination Act of 1853 made smallpox vaccination mandatory in the first three months of an infant’s life. A parent’s penalty for not complying was a fine or imprisonment.

[Then, 20 years later, there’s the tale of Leicester’s reaction to this act and the appalling death rate associated with the process.]

33 – 9/10/1859 – Pasteur’s Daughter Dies

Pasteur’s daughter Jeanne, age 9, died of typhoid fever.

“I cannot keep my thoughts from my poor little girl, so good, so happy in her little life, whom this fatal year now ending has taken away from us. She was growing to be such a companion to her mother and to me, to us all.” –Louis Pasteur, letter to his father, from Life of Pasteur, by Rene Vallery-Radot

 

34 – 1861 – Measles Plays a Role in the Civil War

Measles sickened troops on both sides of the American Civil War.

During the first year of war there were 21,676 reported cases of measles and 551 deaths in the Union Army alone. Deaths were primarily from respiratory and cerebral (brain) involvement. It was recorded, ‘This infection is always serious, often fatal either directly or through its sequelae. The Prognosis therefore should be guarded.’

. . . .

The American Civil War was the last large-scale military conflict fought before the germ theory of disease was developed… Two-thirds of soldiers who died in that war, 660,000 in all, were killed by uncontrolled infectious diseases. Of these, in the Union Army over 67,000 had measles and more than 4,000 died.”

–Michael B. A Oldstone, Viruses, Plagues, & History, 146-47 (2009)

 

35 – 12/12/1862Smallpox Hospital Loses 110 Patients in 1 Week

-Richmond’s smallpox hospital admitted 250 patients during the week of December 12-19. Of the 250, 110 died.

 

36 – 1874

German Vaccination Law

A compulsory smallpox vaccination and revaccination law went into in effect in Germany. Over the next decades, smallpox deaths there dropped rapidly.

“After the law of 1874 went into effect the annual mortality in Prussia fell so that between 1875 and 1886 the average yearly mortality per 100,000 of population was only 1.91. On the other hand, in Austria, where the lax vaccination and revaccination requirements remained unchanged, the mortality of smallpox during about the same period (1872-1884) increased, varying between 39.28 and 94.79 per 100,000 of population…. In 1897, there were but five deaths from this disease in the entire German Empire with a population of 54,000,000.”

— from Vaccination: A Message from the Medical Society of the State of Pennsylvania

 

 

 

37 – 1885-Sporadic Epidemics Continue

Though smallpox disease rates dropped throughout the 19th century due to vaccination, suspicion about vaccination remained among some populations. This led to devastating epidemics when the disease reappeared. French Canadians were among those whose mistrust of vaccination would end up costing them dearly when, in 1885, poor policies regarding hospital patients resulted in an epidemic in Montreal:

“The disease smoulders here and there and when conditions are favorable becomes epidemic. This was well illustrated by the Montreal outbreak of 1885. For several years there had been no small-pox in the city, and a large unprotected population grew up among the French-Canadians, many of whom were opposed to vaccination. On February 28 a Pullman-car conductor, who had traveled from Chicago, was admitted into the Hôtel-Dieu, the civic small-pox hospital being closed at the time. Isolation was not carried out, and on the 1st of April a servant in the hospital died of small-pox. Following her disease, the authorities of the hospital dismissed all patients presenting no symptoms of contagion who could go home. The disease spread like fire in dry grass and, in nine months 3,164 persons died in the city of small-pox.”

— Sir William Osler and Thomas McCrae, The Principles and Practice of Medicine

 

38 – 1891Advances in Vaccine Production

-English physician S. Monkton Copeman showed that adding glycerin to lymph acts as a germicide. As glycerin came to be widely used, it reduced transmission of harmful microbes via the lymph.

These are the steps in harvesting lymph and mixing it with glycerin:

“A red heifer calf about two months old, in good flesh and health, is placed upon a bench in a special operating room and strapped on its side with one hind leg fastened vertically against the back of the bench. The area between the thighs, covering about ten inches square and including the teats, is shaved and washed with soap and water, with hydrogen peroxide solution, and finally with sterilized water and then dried with sterilized absorbent cotton. On the area so prepared, one hundred spots are then scarified, each from a quarter to half an inch square. The blood is washed away with sterilized water, and when the bleeding has entirely ceased virus is rubbed on each spot very thoroughly for some minutes; the calf is then returned to its stall. It is examined on the third and following days, and when the vesicles are seen to be at the proper stage of development, which is usually on the sixth day, the calf is again placed upon the bench and the whole shaved area washed twice with sterilized water and once again with peroxide of hydrogen solution. All macroscopic dirt and crust is removed and every scarification is cleansed as thoroughly as possible; then with a sterilized curette each scarification is scraped and every particle of pulp removed into a sterilized glass dish. The pulp taken is weighed, comminuted, and mixed with a measured amount of chemically pure glycerin, by being passed between glass rollers on which the glycerin flows. There is thus produced a brown syrupy homogeneous emulsion, which is then drawn by a filter pump into sterilized glass tubes, which when full are sealed in a flame at both ends. Each of these tubes holds about 20 cubic centimeters.”

— Annual Report of the Board of Health of the Health Department of the City of New York for the Year Ending December 31, 1896

 

39 – 1893 – Low Vaccination Rates Lead to Outbreak

A Muncie, Indiana, smallpox outbreak illustrated the effect of lower vaccination rates on the spread of disease. A local physician noted that vaccination there had been largely neglected since the last epidemic of smallpox in 1876.

The initial cases appeared in a family in which only one member had been vaccinated. Physicians were unsure whether the disease was smallpox or chickenpox, and established a quarantine too late to control disease spread.

Despite measures that included a near-quarantine of the city, fumigation of mail, cancellation of public gatherings, and compulsory vaccination, the epidemic spread from May 1893 through October. In the end, 140 people contracted smallpox and 20 died of it. Approximately 13,000 people were vaccinated during the epidemic, with one possible death resulting from post-vaccination tetanus infection.

The careful collection of epidemic-related data shown in the images points to the emerging use of statistics to analyze disease spread. This tendency will grow through the 20th century

 

40 – 6/17/1894 – First U.S. Polio Epidemic

The first major documented polio outbreak in the United States occurred in Rutland County, Vermont. Eighteen deaths and 132 cases of permanent paralysis were reported.

Charles Caverly, MD, noted the appearance of acute nervous system disease in the county. He was one of the first physicians to recognize that polio could occur with or without paralysis. He did not assume, however, that the disease could be spread from person to person. The contagious nature of polio would be established in 1905.

The element of contagium does not enter into the etiology either. I find but a single instance in which more than one member of a family had the disease, and as it usually occurred in families of more than one child and as no efforts were made at isolation, it is very certain that it was non-contagious.

—Charles Caverly, MD, Infantile Paralysis in Vermont

 

41 – 1895 – Antitoxin Production in the United States

Mulford Company of Philadelphia (later Merck Sharp & Dohme) began to produce and test diphtheria antitoxin in the United States.

The New York City Health Department began producing diphtheria antitoxin this year as well. Deaths from the disease began to drop as the treatment was increasingly used.

A first step in producing diphtheria antitoxin involved incubating the bacteria and then determining which samples were of adequate strength to produce antitoxin. Workers grew the bacteria in test tubes and then tested the strength of the bacteria on guinea pigs.

In a little animal weighing three hundred grams (about half a pound) we would inject, perhaps, one one-hundredth of a cubic centimeter, or one-fifth of a drop; in another would be injected one-half, and in a third one-quarter of this quantity.

By keeping these animals under observation for a few days, we are enabled to detect just how large a quantity of this bouillon containing the living bacilli from each of the cultures is needed to destroy the life of the animal. When this has been determined, we select four or five of the most virulent cultures to use for the production of the toxines.” –WH Park and HM Biggs, Diphtheria Antitoxin

Park and Biggs described the method for producing serum from horses for use in diphtheria treatment. The horses were injected over time with increasing amounts of diphtheria toxin, starting with about 0.5 cubic centimeters (about 10 drops).

When we can introduce from two hundred to three hundred cubic centimeters of strong toxine into the horse without producing serious symptoms, we can feel pretty certain that the horse’s blo

 

42 – 12/4/1894 –  New York City Regulates Antitoxin

The New York City Board of Health told the Health Department to devise a plan to ensure the purity and potency of diphtheria antitoxins sold in the city. At this point, most of the antitoxin came from two suppliers in Germany.

 

43 – 1901 – Antitoxin Contamination

Thirteen St. Louis children died from contaminated diphtheria antitoxin.

Investigations showed that a horse used in diphtheria antitoxin production for the St. Louis municipal health authority died of tetanus. Rather than being discarded, some of the antitoxin produced from the diseased horse was sent to physicians.

This incident, along with a Camden, New Jersey, tetanus outbreak linked to contaminated smallpox vaccine, led to federal regulation of biologic products.

44 – 1904 – Tuberculosis: Attenuation of Bacterium

French researcher Albert Calmette (1863-1933) acquired the M. bovis strain of tuberculosis, which had been isolated from the milk of an infected cow. In 1908, at the Institut Pasteur in Lille, France, he and veterinarian Jean-Marie Camille Guérin (1872-1961) began attenuating M. bovis by passing it through a growth medium they had developed specifically for this purpose. Their immediate goal was to weaken the bacteria to the point where they could no longer kill a guinea pig. In the end, the researchers hoped to produce a strain of the bacillus that would safely confer immunity to an uninfected host. It would be 13 years before they saw the fruits of their efforts.

 

45 – 1905 – Serum Sickness Described

Clemens Pirquet (1874-1929) and Bela Schick (1877-1967) described a clinical illness they called “serum sickness.” Understanding this new form of disease helped pave the way for defining and understanding allergy and immunologic diseases.

Schick and Pirquet observed that children treated for diphtheria with large quantities (up to 200 mL, almost 7 ounces, or almost 1 cup) of antitoxin derived from horses often went on to experience symptoms such as swelling, fever, rash, and joint pains. We now know that the human immune system mistakes the foreign antibodies in the serum for antigens. The symptoms of serum sickness are the result of a cascading immune reaction. In Pirquet and Schick’s practice, serum sickness was not life-threatening, and the children who recovered from diphtheria were not harmed by the treatment

 

46 – 1905 – North America Sees Last Yellow Fever Epidemic

The last yellow fever epidemic on the North American continent occurred in New Orleans, Louisiana. The epidemic ended in the fall after a large-scale mosquito eradication program.

 

47 – 1898 – Britain Allows Exemptions

The British Vaccination Act of this year provided a conscience clause to allow exemptions to mandatory smallpox vaccination. This clause gave rise to the term “conscientious objector,” which later came to refer to those opposed to military service. By the end of the year, magistrates had issued more than 200,000 vaccination exemptions.

Antivaccinationists in England, other parts of Europe, and the United States were active in publishing, speaking, and demonstrating about their objections to vaccination.

 

48 – 1905 – A Physician’s Plea

Franklin Royer (1870-1961), from Philadelphia’s Municipal Hospital, published a paper urging timely treatment for diphtheria and adequate doses of antitoxin.

Royer was concerned that doctors waited too long before starting antitoxin treatment. He wrote that “[t]he time to give it is when you have clinical evidence of diphtheria. Do not await a culture report; do not wait to see if you will have severe diphtheria. Give it at once.”

He cited declining diphtheria death rates in New York City and Chicago, where treatment may have been more aggressive, to support his pleas for treatment.

The death-rate in diphtheria hospitals has been greatly reduced and in many instances cut in half by the introduction of serum therapy. We would plead for a dose of antitoxin in proportion to the amount of exudates and location of the exudates. We would urge a large dose of antitoxin in nasal, nasopharyngeal, and laryngeal diphtheria. We would plead for the general use of antitoxin earlier in the disease. We would plead for more general use of antitoxin as a prophylactic measure in a dose proportionate to the amount of exposure and time of exposure.”

  • Franklin Royer, The Antitoxin Treatment of Diphtheria, with a Plea for Rational Dosage in Treatment and in Immunizing.

 

49 – 1905 – Tuberculosis: Fruitless Search for Antitoxin

Emil von Behring attempted to apply lessons and methods developed in the study of diphtheria as he searched for a tuberculosis antitoxin. This search would fail, as Mycobacterium tuberculosis does not excrete a toxin.

 

 

50 – 1907 – Toward Immunization

Emil von Behring published a paper showing that a mixture of diphtheria toxin and antitoxin produced safe and lasting immunity to diphtheria in humans. The combination of toxin and antitoxin needed to be carefully balanced to provide enough toxin to elicit active immunity and the right amount of antitoxin to prevent the toxin from causing disease.

 

 

51 – 1911 – Haffkine Develops Heat-Killed Cholera Vaccine

Waldemar Haffkine developed a heat-killed cholera vaccine, perhaps in recognition that the vaccine Wilhelm Kolle developed was easier to prepare and standardize.

 

52 – 1913 – The Schick Test

Bela Schick developed a test to determine if a person had developed some immunity to diphtheria after having been exposed to those bacteria.

Schick based his test on developments in the understanding of disease and immunity. He reasoned that the injection of a very small amount of diphtheria toxin under the skin would produce a reddening and slight swelling of the site. This is a positive reaction, and indicated that the patient had not previously been exposed to diphtheria. A negative reaction, based on a lack of reddening of the area, indicated that the patient had previously been exposed to diphtheria and therefore had immunity to it. A negative reaction eliminated the need for treatment for diphtheria if a household contact or schoolmate developed the disease.

After Schick left his native Europe and came to New York in 1923, he instituted wide use of his test throughout the city. At that point, immunization was available for those who had not been exposed to diphtheria.

 

53 – 1912 – Whooping Cough: Killed Vaccine Fails

Bordet and Gengou prepared a pertussis (whooping cough) vaccine from killed whole-cell B. pertussis preparations, but it proved not to be effective. Other scientists would similarly develop other pertussis vaccines through the 1910s.

 

54 – 6/17/1916 – New York City Polio Epidemic

Health officials announced a polio epidemic centered in Brooklyn, New York. As was typical with polio outbreaks, infections surfaced in the summer months.

More than 2000 people would die in New York City alone. Across the United States in 1916, polio took the lives of about 6,000 people, leaving thousands more paralyzed.

Summer epidemics would come to be common in this era and would lead to widespread closures of pools, amusements parks, and other places where children gathered.

 

55 – 1916 – Measles Continues to Spread in the U.S.

Measles killed nearly 12,000 people in the United States in 1916, 75% of them younger than five years old.

Estimates of the percentage of measles patients who suffer complications from the disease have ranged from 15% to as high as 30%. Serious complications include pneumonia, encephalitis, and corneal ulceration.

 

56 – 07/18/1921 –Tuberculosis: First Human Tests of BCG

Albert Calmette and Camille Guérin began their first tests of their attenuated tuberculosis bacilli in humans.

Their preparation is called Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, or BCG in shorthand. BCG is a weakened form of a tuberculosis bacterium that causes the disease in cows.

 

57 – 1922 – School Vaccination Requirements

By this time, many United States schools required smallpox vaccination before children could attend. Some students and their families, however, sought the help of the courts to avoid the requirement. One such case was considered by the U.S. Supreme Court, when Rosalyn Zucht, a student from San Antonio, Texas, was excluded from a public school for failure to present proof of vaccination.

The complaint alleged that the city ordinances requiring vaccination to attend public school violated the due process and equal protection clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment. The court dismissed the writ of error that brought the case to them, stating that the constitutional question presented was not substantial in character, and citing previous cases which had determined that a city ordinance was a law of the state—and that it was “within the police power of a state to provide for compulsory vaccination.”

 

58 – 1926 – Glenny Develops Adjuvant

Alexander Thomas Glenny (1882-1965) increased the effectiveness of diphtheria toxoid by treating it with aluminum salts.

Efforts to improve diphtheria toxoid were necessary because toxoid alone produced a lower level of antibody response than desired. Moreover, the immunity it produced was shorter than desired.

Observing that animals achieved better immunity to diphtheria when the injected toxoid created a local inflammatory reaction, Glenny began to add substances to the toxoid to trigger such a response. Today we call these substances adjuvants, and they are used in several types of vaccines.

 

59 – 1929 – The Iron Lung

Philip Drinker, PhD (1894-1972), and Charles McKhann, MD (1898-1988), at Boston Children’s Hospital and Harvard published a paper describing successful use of an artificial respirator for patients suffering from paralytic polio.

The machine, first known as the Drinker respirator and later as the iron lung, would provide temporary and in some cases, permanent breathing support for people suffering paralysis of the diaphragm and intracostal muscles, which are essential for respiration.

The Drinker respirator was a sealed tube-like structure, powered by electricity. The patient’s head extended from the tube, and the body, with a rubber seal at the neck, was entirely enclosed by the tube. Decreased pressure forced air into the lungs, and increased pressure forced air out.

 

60 – 1929 – Tuberculosis: Lübeck Disaster

A disaster caused by use of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) for tuberculosis vaccination struck the German city of Lübeck. During 1929 and 1930, 72 babies died from tuberculosis out of 252 vaccinated. Many other infants were made ill as a result of vaccination. The vaccine used was later found to have been contaminated with a human tuberculosis strain being studied in same lab where the vaccine was produced.

 

61 – 1926 – Glenny Develops Adjuvant

Alexander Thomas Glenny (1882-1965) increased the effectiveness of diphtheria toxoid by treating it with aluminum salts.

Efforts to improve diphtheria toxoid were necessary because toxoid alone produced a lower level of antibody response than desired. Moreover, the immunity it produced was shorter than desired.

Observing that animals achieved better immunity to diphtheria when the injected toxoid created a local inflammatory reaction, Glenny began to add substances to the toxoid to trigger such a response. Today we call these substances adjuvants, and they are used in several types of vaccines.

 

62 – 1936 – Max Theiler Develops Yellow Fever Vaccine

Max Theiler and his colleagues developed a live attenuated vaccine for yellow fever using tissue cultures prepared from embryonated chicken eggs. Among the many subcultures of the yellow fever virus in the laboratory, the one designated “17D” was used, giving the vaccine its name. He published results of U.S. vaccine trials in humans in 1937. The vaccine was easily adapted for mass production and became the universal standard.

 

 

63 – 4/24/1955 – The Cutter Incident

Just a few weeks after the landmark press conference announcing success of the vaccine trials, an Idaho doctor reported a case of paralytic polio in a recently vaccinated girl. Over the next few weeks, similar reports trickled in to local health authorities. All involved a disturbing detail: paralysis began in the vaccinated arm, rather than in the legs as was more common.

It soon emerged that most of the cases of paralytic polio occurred in children inoculated with vaccine produced by Cutter Laboratories in California.

 

64 – 1959 – Soviet Trials of Sabin’s Live Poliovirus Vaccine

Albert Sabin forged a bond with Soviet health officials, who were interested in a cheaper alternative to Salk’s vaccine. Sabin had spent years studying and attenuating the three types of polioviruses so that they were effective in inducing immunity to polio but weak enough not to cause disease.

A massive vaccination campaign began, in which Sabin’s oral polio vaccine (OPV) was fed to 10 million Soviet children. Unlike the Salk trials of 1954 in the United States, the trial of Sabin’s vaccine used no unvaccinated control group.

The OPV had several advantages over the Salk vaccine (IPV).

  • It produced an immune response faster than Salk’s vaccine, which meant that it could be used to respond to an epidemic.
  • Because it entered the mouth, it traveled through the digestive system in the same manner as the wild virus. Vaccine recipients shed weakened vaccine virus in their stools, which sometimes had the effect of weakly immunizing those around them.
  • OPV, often delivered on a sugar cube and eaten, was easier to give than the Salk vaccine, which was injected.

The IPV, however, retained one major advantage over the OPV: The killed viruses in IPV cannot revert to virulent forms as can the viruses in OPV. And in another resprect, the two vaccines are basically the same: The IPV is as good at OPV in preventing polioviruses from spreading through the bloodstream.

Over the next several decades, the medical world would continue to weigh the advanatages and disadvantages of the two vac

 

65 – 1963 – Measles Vaccine Licensed

After demonstrating its safety and efficacy, first in monkeys and then humans, John Enders and colleagues declared their measles vaccine capable of preventing infection. Their Edmonston-B strain of measles virus was transformed into a vaccine licensed in the United States in 1963, and nearly 19 million doses would be administered over the next 12 years.

 

66 – 1964 – Adjuvant Recommended

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommended use of an aluminum-precipitated form of DTP vaccine.

The aluminum adjuvant enhanced the body’s antibody response to the toxoids in the combination vaccine.

 

67 – 1961 – Cholera: Seventh Pandemic

The seventh cholera pandemic emerged in Indonesia and spread throughout Africa and Asia. The El Tor strain was the causative agent in this pandemic. Epidemiologists consider the seventh pandemic to be ongoing today.

 

68 – 1967 – Mumpsvax Licensed

The FDA licensed Merck’s mumps vaccine, developed by Maurice Hilleman, on March 30, 1967. Within five years, more than 11 million doses of Mumpsvax would be distributed.

 

69 – 1971 – MMR Combination Vaccine Debuts

The U.S. government licensed Merck’s measles, mumps, and rubella combination vaccine (M-M-R). In an article published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, researchers reported that the vaccine induced immunity to measles in 96% of vaccinated children; to mumps in 95%; and to rubella in 94%. Additionally, initial tests in 1968 had already shown that adverse reactions from the MMR vaccine were no greater than from any of the single vaccines.

 

70 – 3/24/1976 – Swine Flu Vaccine

Maurice Hilleman and other scientists met with U.S. President Gerald Ford to discuss a vaccine response to an outbreak of swine influenza at Fort Dix, New Jersey. Congress committed funds to a nationwide vaccination program.

Merck intended to produce 50 million swine-flu vaccine doses by January 1977 and delivered about 11 million doses in late September 1976. The nationwide vaccination program, however, ended after vaccination was associated with an increased risk of a condition called Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). GBS has several causes, the most common of which is infection with bacteria called Campylobacter. But GBS occurred in recipients of the 1976 swine-flu vaccine at a rate higher than usual: beyond the normal “expected” rate for the general population, about one additional case occurred for every 100,000 vaccine recipients. And, despite what first promised to be a widespread outbreak, few cases of swine flu actually developed among the American people.

 

71 – 1997 – Massive Vaccination Efforts in India

On a single January day in 1997, health workers vaccinated 127 million children against polio in India, a country struggling to control the disease. The following year, another 134 million would be vaccinated in a single day.

 

72 – 2/1/2016 – WHO Declares Zika Virus Emergency

The World Health Organization announced that the spread of Zika virus was a public health emergency of international concern. At the time, the WHO’s Emergency Committee had sufficient information to announce that a strong association existed between Zika virus infection in pregnant women and microcephaly and other birth defects in their infants. Over the next months, this evidence, and evidence that Zika virus infection could lead to Guillain Barre Syndrome, would grow more convincing.

Zika virus was first detected in the Americas in 2015, and it quickly spread to many countries in South, Central, and to a smaller degree, North America. Zika virus is transmitted mainly via the bite of infected mosquitoes, but it can also be spread sexually.

 

73 – 2/1/2016 – WHO Declares Zika Virus Emergency

The World Health Organization announced that the spread of Zika virus was a public health emergency of international concern. At the time, the WHO’s Emergency Committee had sufficient information to announce that a strong association existed between Zika virus infection in pregnant women and microcephaly and other birth defects in their infants. Over the next months, this evidence, and evidence that Zika virus infection could lead to Guillain Barre Syndrome, would grow more convincing.

Zika virus was first detected in the Americas in 2015, and it quickly spread to many countries in South, Central, and to a smaller degree, North America. Zika virus is transmitted mainly via the bite of infected mosquitoes, but it can also be spread sexually.

 

SOURCE:

All from : https://www.historyofvaccines.org/timeline#EVT_100354

 

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Eurotrash 1 – what they are.

European Health Parliament

First impressions and Vaccination plans on the spotlight. November 7, 2017.

 The first EHP Plenary managed to grasp the participants’ attention by allowing the informal interactions not only among the participants but also with the sponsors. One of the highlights of the day was discovering the Committee that the participants were going to be engaged with for the next seven months. Our Committee will focus on providing a Pan-European Vaccines initiative, coming at a necessary time, following the outbreaks of measles in a series of EU Member States and the call of the European Commission for further vaccination plans.

The greatest highlight was the Plenary session at the European Parliament, allowing participants to have a first discussion with the EU elected policy-makers.

The Committee on a European Vaccine initiative intends to provide recommendations for the establishment and creation of a pan-European vaccination programme. To begin with, the Committee will conduct a research on the legal and policy framework of the vaccination policy plans, considering that Health is not an exclusive competence of the EU.

This first research will further allow our Committee to explore the existing initiatives that have been undertaken by Member States to comprehend their advantages and disadvantages. By focusing on the national vaccination plans and policies, the Committee on a European Vaccine Initiative will draw up a map with national plans that can be used as a best-practice example for the development of further pan-European vaccination initiatives.

The policy recommendations will consider the national laws that constitute the immunisation of the citizens, whether they are obligatory, optional or prohibited. In addition to this, our Committee will conduct research on the European framework on vaccination, past Action Plans and public-private Partnerships that have assisted in the R&D of new innovative vaccines in affordable prices.

In addition to this, the policy recommendations will provide concrete steps for the development, communication and application of those initiatives on the ground.

Vaccination is the most important aspect of immunisation for the citizens. However, vaccination hesitance has risen amongst citizens, jeopardising public health. Diseases, such as measles, which were rumoured to have been eradicated in years are rearing their ugly heads, leading not only to the massive hospitalisation of children and elderly people but also to deaths.

Moreover, every year thousands of women are dying from cervical cancer, which is preventable with vaccination preferably at an early age. Indeed, vaccination is critical to avoid unnecessary deaths, issues associated with long term treatments and additional financial costs that higher percentages of not-immunized citizens could bring to the healthcare system.

The European Commission and the Commissioner for Health and Food Safety, Mr Vytenis Andriukaitis, have announced that in 2018 an EU Joint Action on Vaccination will be adopted in order to assist and enhance the national vaccination programmes.

In fact, in the recent State of the Union speech, President Jean-Claude Junker said:

In a Union of equals, there can be no second class citizens. It is unacceptable that in 2017 there are still children dying of diseases that should long have been eradicated in Europe. Children in Romania or Italy must have the same access to measles vaccines as children in other European countries. No ifs, no buts. This is why we are working with all Member States to support national vaccination efforts. Avoidable deaths must not occur in Europe”.

Our Committee on a European Vaccine Initiative aims to not only gain ideas from these plans, but to help shape this initiative by providing concrete recommendations for the development of enhanced national vaccination programs.

The Vaccines Initiative Committee of the European Health Parliament will strive to engage openly with different stakeholders, in order to gain further information and concrete proposals from experts.

Our list of contacts includes the cabinet of Commissioner Andriukaitis, various Members of the European Parliament, trade associations, NGOs, academia and other European Commission agencies such as the ECDC and the EMA.

Our speaking partners will also be invited to subsequent plenary hearings to present their findings before European Health Parliament participants. By adopting a holistic approach on vaccines hesitancy and the direction the national vaccination plans need to take, the Vaccines Initiative Committee will attempt to provide concrete solutions not only on the application of those plans on the ground. We will [also] strive to raise awareness on [of!] the necessity of vaccination for the immunisation of the European Citizens by creating digital campaigns in the media and the social media and assisting in the dismantlement of misconceptions and propaganda.

The Committee on a European Vaccine Initiative will strive its best to make health great again in the area of vaccination!

[And perhaps they should first take some lessons in communication and writing skills!]

http://www.healthparliament.eu/ehp-first-impressions-vaccination-plans-spotlight/

[PS – this will very soon obtain annotations as analysis of its multitudinous flaws………]

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How many scientists……….?

“How many scientists does it take to change the proverbial lightbulb?”

“Well, what an interesting question – we must spend some time and produce an accurate answer for you. Initially, I can already see that we shall have to carry out some preliminary investigations, so’s that we can frame our research projects and get the true depth and, indeed, breadth that such a study will require. To this end I have already undertaken to contract the services of a talented group of researchers that I have worked with previously on similar projects and whose scope and capabilities i can personally vouch for.

“When I am in receipt of their initial reports and have had time to absorb their implications I will move to frame the way forward sequentially, with an aim to gradually, but conclusively build up an answer which you will then be able to utilise in order to request of us further clarification of the subject as seems appropriate to you at that particular juncture.”

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Leading vaccinologists…..into ignomy!

From pharmacist Allan postgate:

The very pro-vax son of a good friend of mine told me he would rather defer to the authority of leading immunologists than to the non-peer-reviewed sources he claims I use to challenge the mainstream view on vaccination.Patricia McMahon Guy suggested I shared my response to this wider audience, and this is it:-

  1. So those would be the same leading immunologists that steadfastly refuse to put the vaxxed/unvaxxed debate to rest once and for all by doing a long-term large scale comparison of health outcomes of the two populations;
  2. the same leading immunologists that have so little faith in their products that they won’t indemnify them themselves but rely on governments to pay up vaccine-damage compensation;
  3. the same leading immunologists who, after losing the need to indemnify their vaccines in 1986, went on a development spree to the extent that the USA vaccine schedule is now at 72 vaccines by the age of 18, and the UK vaccine schedule 58;
  4. the same leading immunologists that never comment on the clear fact that the most vaxxed population in the developed world, the USA, which should be the healthiest, has by far the highest percentage of chronic childhood diseases;
  5. the same leading immunologists that never comment on why low-vaxxed populations like the Amish haven’t fallen prey to rampant pestilences and died out;
  6. the same leading immunologists that rely on maintaining and increasing the level of vaccination for their job security and fat salaries, taken from the $40 billion per annum turnover of vaccines;
  7. the same leading immunologists that don’t counter criticism with better science but with ridicule, sarcasm and ostracism, to the degree that any healthcare professional who wants to question the vaccine schedule had better be near to retirement age as it will be a career-limiting move, (which has given rise to the new verb ‘to Wakefield’);
  8. the same leading immunologists who deliberately destroyed 10,000 pages of data at the CDC in 2002 which proved a (rather inconvenient) link between the MMR jab and autism;
  9. the same leading immunologists who recommend the flu jab for pregnant women despite the vaccine insert leaflet saying it has never been tested on pregnant women and, presumably therefore, on developing fetuses;
  10. the same leading immunologists that would rather inject third world children with cholera and typhoid vaccines than sort out clean water and good sanitation for them;
  11. the same leading immunologists who claim the science is settled when science is never settled – how do they know what new evidence might need to be considered in the future?

 

I could go on, but I think by now you will appreciate I don’t trust the authority of your ‘leading immunologists’.

 

SHOULD ANYONE FIND IT USEFUL TO USE ANY OR ALL OF THE ABOVE, PLEASE FEEL FREE TO DO SO.

 

 

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A Pro-Vax Manifesto by Brett Wilcox

Well, this is out there and needs circulating. I just lifted it from AoA but, for now, thanks Brett, this is a good, droll read. Funny if it were not so ******* true!

Brett starts by saying:

“I’ve been studying vaccines for a few years now. During that time several pro-vaxxers have done their best to convince me of the error of my ways. Many grow frustrated with me and inform me that I’m simple minded and stupid. It’s true that I wasn’t the quickest kid in the class. It’s taken me a long time to grasp what they’re saying, but I think I’ve finally got it. If you’re a pro-vaxxer, please let me know if I accurately represented your position. Thanks for your patience!”

And adding the following quote from a certain Ginger Taylor:
“I have never fully understood how stupid and absurd the vaccine industry’s arguments defending the current vaccine program actually were until Brett Wilcox put them all together on one page.  I can’t believe how badly this country is being scammed.  It is not just horrifically criminal that they are getting away with this, it is monumentally embarrassing that anyone in the US believes them.  What suckers we have been.” –

Then his full imagined piece, formed by his knowing this Voodoo Science belief system which form the core of the vaccination industry:

Pro Vax Manifesto

  1. All disease is bad.
    * All vaccines are good.
    * The science is settled, all vaccines work.
    * All vaccines are equally effective.
    * All vaccines are equally safe.
  2. Vaccines are tested for safety more than any other pharmaceutical product.
    * Vaccine safety studies are long term studies, meaning they last for more than four days.
    * Experimental vaccines intended for babies are first tested on babies.
    * Experimental vaccines that will eventually be given to unhealthy children are first tested on unhealthy children.
    * Vaccine safety studies always include inert placebos.
    * The entire vaccine schedule has been studied for safety.
  3. The theory and the practice of vaccination are identical.
    * Vaccine Information Sheets contain the same information as Vaccine Package Inserts.
    * Vaccination equals immunization, yet the public should still fear and ostracize the unvaccinated.
    * Vaccines work, but only if everyone else is vaccinated because, of course, my medicine makes your medicine more effective.
    * Everyone should be forced to vaccinate to protect the vaccinated from getting the diseases for which they were vaccinated.
  4. Vaccines have never caused ADHD, tics, Guillain-Barré Syndrome, learning disabilities, cancer, diabetes, eczema, paralysis, autism, or any other injury.
    * It’s just a coincidence when babies get sick, diseased, regress, or die following vaccination.
    * Vaccination is the leading cause of coincidences.
  5. There is nothing in vaccines that could hurt a baby or anyone else. That’s why vaccine manufacturers and doctors can’t be sued for vaccine injury or death.
    * If vaccines injure a baby, it’s the baby’s fault for having bad genes. Vaccines just identify the defect.
    * Vaccines are composed of neurotoxins, human fetal DNA, animal tissue, adjuvants, allergens, antigens, and contaminants. Buildings are evacuated and hazmat teams are called when the contents of a vaccine spill on the floor. That’s why the same ingredients are safe when repeatedly injected into pregnant women, infants, toddlers, teens, the aged, and virtually everyone in between.
    * The toxic ingredients in vaccines make sick people healthy and healthy people healthier.
  6. Injecting toxins is no different than ingesting toxins.
    * Because one vaccine is safe, two, four, eight vaccines etc. are equally safe.
    * Vaccines are better than vitamins, the more you get, the healthier you are.
    * Studies show that vaccine injuries and deaths increase as the number of vaccines increase. That’s why babies can safely receive thousands of vaccines at once.
  7. High-pitched screams, fevers, lethargy, being zoned out, sleeping for days, diarrhea, and seizures are normal vaccine reactions.
    * Normal reactions are not vaccine injury.
  8. The US vaccine schedule is the only schedule in the world.
    * There are no alternative schedules.
    * Alternative schedules are untested and dangerous.
  9. Until recently, 100% of people failed to notice behaviors and traits associated with autism that have always existed in 2% of the population. Some of these behaviors and traits include head banging, spinning, hand flapping, poop smearing, delayed speech, speech regression, inability to speak, speaking in an abnormal tone of voice, repeating words and phrases over and over again, yelling, crying, or laughing for no apparent reason, obsessive attachment to unusual objects, gastrointestinal problems, explosive diarrhea, extreme sensitivity to light, sound and touch, indifference to temperature or pain, difficulty understanding other people’s feelings, reactions, or facial expressions, resistance to being touched, failure to bond or emotionally connect with parents, siblings, and others, wandering, and lack of fear of water sometimes resulting in drowning.
    * Autism is normal.
    * Autism is a gift.
    * Autism should be celebrated.
    * Parents who don’t celebrate their kids’ autism are selfish crybabies.
    * Autism is an evolutionary response to the computer age.
    * No vaccine has ever caused autism.
    * Only one now debunked paper written solely by one now disgraced doctor has ever linked vaccines to autism.
    * That man is a fraud and he’s personally responsible for killing millions of babies just like Hitler.
  10. Media outlets can be trusted because they always report the truth about vaccines.
    * Media outlets are not influenced by corporate sponsors or government censorship.
    * Media should shame and mock parents of vaccine-injured children, especially the moms.
    * Media should libel and misquote doctors and scientists who address vaccine safety issues.
    * Media should not give fair and equal airtime to parents of vaccine-injured children.
    * Media sponsored hate speech is bad … unless it’s targeting parents of vaccine-injured children.
    * Media should slam movies such as Vaxxed without ever watching them.
  11. The pharmaceutical industry does not influence medical school curriculum.
    * Doctors are taught everything there is to know about vaccination:
  12. disease is bad
  13. vaccines are good
  14. the vaccine schedule
  15. vaccine administration and
  16. strategies to coerce vaccine hesitant parents and others to vaccinate.
  17. Listen to your doctor … unless your doctor warns you about the dangers of vaccination.
    * The ethical principle of informed consent which was established after World War II to prevent further medical experimentation on uninformed and unwilling subjects does not apply to vaccination.
    * When doctors coerce and threaten parents to vaccinate their kids, they are not violating medical ethics.
    * Medical providers should chart adverse events from medications, but they should deny vaccine-induced adverse events because vaccines are safe and effective.
    * Doctors who address vaccine safety concerns should lose their medical licenses.
  18. The HPV vaccine has been proven to prevent cancer.
    * Teen aged girls who fake injury—including paralysis, full body tics, and debilitating pain resulting in being confined to their homes and beds—after getting the HPV vaccine should see a shrink for psychological problems.
    * Exposure to chickenpox and measles in childhood provides no health benefits later in life.
    * Getting chickenpox is very bad and very scary.
    * Getting measles is very, very bad and very, very scary because measles is one of the most lethal diseases on Earth and probably in the whole universe. That’s why parents used to take their kids to measles and chickenpox parties.
  19. Vaccines don’t contain human fetal DNA.
    * Only two babies have been aborted for vaccine research.
  20. Vaccines used to contain mercury, but that doesn’t matter because it was the good kind.
    * Vaccines don’t contain mercury anymore, but that doesn’t matter because it was the good kind.
    * Vaccines now banned in developed countries because they contained mercury are still being used in developing countries, but that doesn’t matter because it’s the good kind.
    * The amount of mercury in some “preservative- or thimerosal-free” vaccines exceeds the EPA safety limit and must be disposed of as hazardous waste. But that doesn’t matter, because it’s the good kind of hazardous waste.
  21. Aluminum is a known neurotoxin and is proven to play a significant role in promoting neurological diseases like Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, dementia, and autism. That’s why it’s safe to inject newborns with aluminum in excess of EPA safety limits.
    * Aluminum is essential for optimal brain functioning and development.
  22. There is no valid reason for religious people to object to vaccination because God has no problem with injecting healthy babies time and time again with a variety of cell-killing and brain-damaging concoctions.
  23. People get Hepatitis B from dirty needles and sexual activity. That’s why Hep B negative mothers should consent to have their 1 day old infants injected with the Hep B vaccine.
  24. Pus from cowpox eradicated smallpox.
    * 10% of the Earth’s population received smallpox vaccines. That’s why nearly everyone needs to be vaccinated to eradicate a disease.
    * Not getting the chickenpox vaccine will kill millions of people from smallpox.
    * Not getting the measles vaccine will put millions of kids in iron lungs.
    * Environmental toxins and tonsillectomies had nothing to do with America’s polio epidemic and polio disease reclassification had nothing to do with reversing the epidemic.
    * The polio vaccine used in India is not causing paralysis in 30,000 children per year.
  25. Sanitation, clean drinking water, and good food are responsible for the reduction of diseases for which there are currently no vaccines. However, once a vaccine is developed for any of those diseases, the previous statement will no longer be valid.
  26. Immunocompromised people should not be vaccinated with live virus vaccines … unless they live in developing countries.
    * The oral polio vaccine should never be given to HIV positive people … unless they live in Africa.
    * Being sick is no reason not to get vaccinated.
  27. It would be unethical to conduct a prospective vaxxed vs. unvaxxed study because withholding vaccines from children would kill them.
    * It would be impossible to conduct a retroprospective vaxxed vs. unvaxxed study because all the unvaxxed kids have already died from vaccine preventable diseases.
  28. Vaccines have never been tested for safety with pregnant women and their fetuses. That’s why it’s safe to inject them in pregnant women.
    * Pregnant women should avoid alcohol, antibiotics, Thalidomide, and other pharmaceutical products, but should receive all vaccines offered them at any stage of their pregnancies.
    * Babies are born vaccine deficient.
    * Premature infants need the protection from vaccines even more than full term infants.
    * Even though the pertussis vaccine does not prevent the transmission of pertussis and is known to result in asymptomatic carriers of the disease, vaccinating family members is the best way to protect newborns from whooping cough.
  29. *Drug companies make drugs for profit, but they make vaccines out of the goodness of their hearts.
    * Anti-vaxxers enrich themselves writing and selling anti-vaccine propaganda.
  30. The industry has never lied about vaccine safety, efficacy, or necessity.
    * The industry has never faked vaccine research.
    * The industry would never divide vaccine lots to spread out and hide vaccine injury and death.
    * The industry would never test vaccines on orphans, disabled people, or people of color.
    * Merck lied about Vioxx, but it would never lie about its vaccines.
    * Merck supervisors did not order its scientists to fake the efficacy of the mumps vaccine.
  31. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation didn’t get booted out of India for conducting cloaked vaccine trials on Indian girls resulting in thousands of injuries and hundreds of deaths.
    * The Gates Foundation isn’t preparing to vaccinate hundreds of thousands of African babies with an experimental malaria vaccine known to have negative efficacy, meaning that vaccinated babies get malaria at a higher rate than vaccine free babies.
  32. The CDC’s primary interest is the health and safety of American children.
    * The CDC can be trusted to regulate vaccine safety issues because it owns over 50 vaccine patents and profits from vaccine sales.
    * CDC employees have no conflicts of interest.
    * When the CDC reports that the flu vaccine is 40% effective, that means that the vaccine prevents the flu in four out of ten people.
    * CDC employees have never consorted with industry or the medical establishment to hide the relationship between mercury-containing Thimerosal and autism.
    * CDC employees have never consorted with industry or the medical establishment to hide the relationship between the MMR vaccine and autism.
    * CDC employees have never trashed data linking the MMR vaccine to autism.
    * There is no CDC whistleblower.
  33. There is no such thing as a Vaccine Court because there’s no such thing as vaccine injury.
    * The Vaccine Court has not paid out more than $3.5 billion for vaccine injury and death.
  34. Congress is not influenced by donations from Big Pharma.
    * Congress has never ignored vaccine safety issues.
    * Congress has never been complicit in hiding vaccine safety issues from the public.
  35. Scientific journals can be trusted.
    * The papers in scientific journals can be trusted.
    * The drug industry does not ghostwrite pro-vax papers for scientists to sign.
    * Scientists who address vaccine safety issues should be censured or fired.
  36. The anti-vax movement is a recent phenomenon.
    * Anti-vaxxers get their information from a Playboy bunny.
    * Anti-vaxxers get their information from the Internet and everybody knows you can’t trust anything on the Internet, except for the CDC, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the pharmaceutical industry.
    * The AAP has no conflicts of interest with the pharmaceutical industry.
  37. All unvaccinated people are dangerous vectors of disease.
    * All vaccinated kids with HIV, Hep B, chicken pox, measles, influenza, whooping cough, etc., should be allowed in school.
    * All children recently vaccinated with live virus vaccines should be allowed in school.
    * All unvaxxed kids are by definition sick and dangerous disease vectors.
    * All unvaxxed kids should be banned from school, because they’re especially dangerous on weekdays from 8 am to 3 pm.
    * All anti-vaxxers are anti-science.
    * All anti-vaxxers are baby killers.
    * All anti-vaxxers should lose custody of their children.
    * All anti-vaxxers should be quarantined, jailed, or hung.
    * When someone dies of a disease, unvaccinated people should be charged, tried, and convicted of murder.
  38. Pro-vaxxers are logical, pro-science, and open-minded.
    * Pro-vaxxers tolerate differing points of view and are all around caring, compassionate people.

 

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The Thought Police Now Write Guardian Editorials.

The Thought Police Now Write Guardian Editorials

A friend pointed this article out to me. It is another of those seminal, fulcrum moments. Methinks they know not what they write because it is just so far from the mark and has departed from true left wing thinking to repeat word for word the illogical dictats driven into them from above, from the corporate information providers, from their funders, from their minders protecting their positions.

OK, so the original article is referenced here:

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2017/jul/07/the-guardian-view-on-vaccinations-a-matter-of-public-health

But now I reprint it – but with annotations I just had to add:

“It takes a long time for social movements to show up in conventional politics.

The personal becomes political only with a time lag of decades.

The increased toleration and the respect for the individual and the marginalised that appeared in western societies in the 60s and 70s did not make their political breakthrough until the earlier years of this century.

This wasn’t an unmixed good. We tend to think of this rejection of outmoded convention as a wholly progressive development, but the loss of respect for authority has a shadow side as well.

The belief that people should be free to believe what they like has led to the rise of fake news, and of infantile fantasies of the triumph of the will.

[Surely this has always been the case, both in the media and also in everyday life where folk often tried to pull the wool over other people’s eyes, or such actions. Politicians have always lied – way before social media. Now we just have another form of deception but, as ever, one has to read between the lines.]

These burst into electoral politics last year, nourishing both the Trump campaign and the Brexit referendum. [So how come The Guardian did not rail about this problem BEFORE the Brexit result came about?]

But such thoughts [ie their earlier statement that “people should be free to believe what they like”] had been incubating [Very colourful word to use in this context!] quietly for years inside the anti-vaccine movement. [All of us paid up members of said organisation? All of us quietly pondering about belief systems?]

Whether it’s latest manoeuvring in global politics or the ‘and finally’ story that’s going viral, you’ll be bang up-to-date with the news that counts. [They then wrote “Read more” and jumped into polemic……]

[This is, in fact, their no holds barred approach:]To refuse to have your children vaccinated is an attack on society in much the same way as tax evasion is. If a refusal to vaccinate only endangered the children whose parents deliberately put them in harm’s way [This is how they view families where a rational, science based decision is made to refuse the damaging and wholly unproven process named vaccination. And they equate it with tax evasion!], it would still be wrong because parents do not have an unlimited right to be irresponsible [Nobody has any right to be irresponsible. Ever. At all. Another perverse comment from the Guardian] It can be argued that so long as very few people do it, there is very little irresponsibility in refusing to vaccinate a child against a risk that remains distant if everyone else acts for the good of society.

Similar arguments are used to justify all sorts of fraud. [And quite frankly the vaccination scam is the most gargantuan fraud in medical history.]

But when children who might be vaccinated are not, their parents are both exploiting herd immunity and contributing to its breakdown. [We are not a herd and there is no such phenomenon, anyway. Immunity, such as it is, is an individual capability and is a measure of one’s physiological ability to fight off infection. We, every single one of us, carry out this process 24/7 and 365 days of every year, against a multitude of potential such events.]This is plainly wrong and should not be tolerated. [And Big Brother goes off to sulk……]

The French government has just announced that children there must be vaccinated against 18 common childhood diseases. This follows the Italian decision to make vaccinations against 16 diseases a condition of entry to school at six. These measures may feel disturbing to society’s liberal instincts, but they are entirely justified as measures of collective solidarity [Right on Brothers – my, have they just read The Communist Manifesto?] against disease.

The resistance to vaccination in the rich world is also an example of post-religious movements reproducing some of the obnoxious habits and beliefs of traditional religion. Opposition to childhood vaccinations came from fundamentalist religions, as it still does in the border areas of Pakistan and Afghanistan, where health workers have been murdered by the Taliban. This strand of resistance, though, comes from societies that reject modern medicine partly because they are excluded from most of its benefits by poverty. It is much easier to believe in miracles [They are no believing in miracles they simply reject the clear negative outcomes of the vaccination process.] when no alternative cure is available.

The antivaxxers of the western world are very different. They are often rich [I wish!], and enjoy plenty of access to the conventional medicine they despise until they need it. President Trump – who else? – has also embraced discredited theories [“Discredited”, the word they always use, does NOT mean disproved – in fact it is used to describe the process of harming someone’s good reputation in order to cause him harm. In this case Wakefield was and is the target but the underlying facts remain unchallengeable. Although autism is a vague diagnosis, there are clear similarities in outcome of kids so described AND their onset is directly and closely linked to receipt of vaccines.] linking vaccines to autism, instantly popularising dangerous fringe thinking with his tweets and speeches.

Hypochondria meant, originally, anxiety and depression, which are very serious conditions, not to be mocked.[This is just wrong – the condition is specific to excess worry about one’s personal health.] But it has mutated into a form of anxiety that damages other people far more than the sufferer. In a sense, the antivaxxers are carriers of a condition that is as contagious, if not so debilitating, as the physical diseases they also spread. [Now naming “antivaxxers” as being the modern lepers, carrying illness with them where they go. This is so wrong and deeply sad. It is almost a new racism. Never vaccinated are both very healthy and also are very reactive and resistant to infections – having a fully functional immune response system, uncompromised by vaccine derived auto-immunity and other such collateral damages.]

It must also be controlled as a matter of public health. [George Orwell revisited – this is the most blatant exemplar of Newspeak I’ve seen for many a year.]

 

July 14th, 2017

 

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Dr Ursula Anderson, MD, paediatrician since early 1950s

OK, I met this venerable lady just two days ago, and have had two short conversations with her. She is interesting for a number of reasons – not least her resilience in still being here, cogent and travelling twixt US and UK. She has worked throughout the time that paediatrics has been moved from being geared towards personal care into the modern, corporatised, high tech, medicinalised practice. Yeah, she’s worked the the rise to dominance of the vaccine and is thus witness to the rise of all manner of collateral damage from this process.

Her story is a parallel with that of Uta Frith, which I wrote of as “Uta Faith” in “Vaccinology – voodoo science”. Uta does not include any reference to vaccine damage in her work, yet is a bastion of the medical establishment which deals with these outcomes. I argued that, as a result, her whole output is compromised and she seeks to manage and not prevent or seek cures for the sundry ailments.

Then one asks the questions as to whether vested interest comes in “I see no ships” style. I cannot stop this condition being created as we’d lose an excellent income stream subsequently………

OK, here is another. She mentions vaccination early in the following extract but only as context for the changes which were arising in her life’s practice. In conversation, I got from her an understanding that issues needed to be dealt with. “The MMR contains three live viruses and is going to be very difficult for the body to deal with – especially the immune compromised”. She went on to talk of individuals with “mitochondrial deficiency” as most, if not uniquely, susceptible and so, effectively, sidelined the issue. Thus, there are those who will be damaged, but they are a small and identifiable group, for whom separate provision can be made.

No, I do not accept that as even remotely the truth. Those with such inept mitochondria would be so chronically ill, they’d be dead, methinks. However, the increase in all collateral damage, which she would not label as such, she still has had to:
1 – Deal with

2 – Explain

3 – Heal as best a paediatrician can.

Her widespread searchings and much experience led her to finding unconventional routes and she talks of energies and healing powers in a very eastern style. Chakras she did not discuss but did say how the energies were everywhere and she had to draw them down to heal her clients.

So this is from her website and is the second half of the autobiographic note. I hope that I can find time to read some of the books and papers she gave me, that I can put far more substance onto this brief, passing resumee. Alternatively, she has much online and in print that you can peruse……………

 

So:

From : http://www.drursulaanderson.com/personal.php

A personal biography by Dr Ursula Anderson

 

Ursula was accepted into medical school when she was just 16. Following graduation she engaged Psychiatry and soon deserted it believing it was too much of a mechanical and blinkered approach to what, even then, she believed were the results of blights on the human soul.

However, her involvement with psychiatry led her to believe that these disorders of the soul began not only in infancy and childhood, but even before in the lives of their parents and forbears for countless generations before them. Her beliefs of course flew in the face of the commonly held theories about the causes of psychiatric disorders, which at that time were often referred to as madness or craziness. But all of this was good because it led to her romance and still vibrant love affair with Pediatrics, which she has practiced in England, Canada and The United States.

Not too long into her Pediatric practice she sensed that it was too focused on the present and not enough on the future. Immunizations and Antibiotics had changed and were continually changing the content of Pediatric practice, while changes in Society were delivering new problems for children and families.

 

Her research and publications on these burgeoning problems, including learning and behavioral disorders, teen and unwanted pregnancies and the emotional and spiritual damage children were enduring due to the breakdown of so called traditional families, led her in 1965 to ask The American Academy of Pediatrics to take these issues seriously and to create a Section on Community Health. This they did and the many programs deriving from this section are now the most productive programs for children across the USA.

The NEW MORBIDITY of which she spoke 35 years ago has now become the most important aspect of collective Pediatric endeavor. Along the way, as noted already, she drew attention to groups at high risk of morbidity and mortality resulting from unequal access to health care, particularly as this pertained to Mothers and Children. These efforts contributed in no small measure to the establishment of the 3-tiered approach to Peri-natal Care that is now accepted practice.

 

A word now about those who preceded her in their concern for Mothers and Children and on whose magnificent commitment and achievements she built her own brings an interesting historical note to her journey. Amongst the small band of courageous women who pestered and lobbied the United States Congress to establish a Federal Bureau that would overlook the welfare of children was Rose Hawthorne, the daughter of Nathaniel. One of Ursula’s first appointments following her years at Yale University was that of Pediatric Consultant for the state of North Carolina, which was funded by The Children’s Bureau which Rose Hawthorne and her compatriots founded in 1912. So not only was Ursula born in a house in England near to the one where Nathaniel Hawthorne had lived when he was American Consul in Liverpool, but his daughter also tangentially touched her life through the support she received for her work from funds allocated by the Children’s Bureau which Rose helped to established.

 

Ursula lost her parents and biological family at a relatively young age but she exults in the world wide family she has created not only through friends and colleagues but in a very special way with needy children. This latter flows from her own childhood when having lost so much during World War II, her parents could not afford to pay for her schooling, so an arrangement was made with the Loreto Nuns in Wales to take her as a school boarder on a learn now – pay later basis. Also there was an understanding that when her parents regained their financial stability, the Nuns would be reimbursed two-fold, which of course eventually took place (probably four-fold). However, several years later, remembering the anguish this had caused and after she started to earn money following the 13 years of her medical training (and in those days, specialist medical training put us on the poverty line) she started a program of scholarships and bursaries for children whose parents for various reasons, found themselves in the same situation as her Parents had been so many years ago. The first of these went to children attending the Loreto School that had helped her out, subsequently they were given directly to needy and deserving students mostly at the high school and college levels. So far numbering 29 in all. Many of these individuals have and are presently pursuing fulfilling and giving careers in many parts of the world. Additionally she has been surrogate Mum and Home to many troubled children and adults, a reaching out that reflects her belief in the inter-connectedness and inter-dependence of humanity and the LOVE of which she wrote 35 years ago.

 

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