Dr Ursula Anderson, MD, paediatrician since early 1950s

OK, I met this venerable lady just two days ago, and have had two short conversations with her. She is interesting for a number of reasons – not least her resilience in still being here, cogent and travelling twixt US and UK. She has worked throughout the time that paediatrics has been moved from being geared towards personal care into the modern, corporatised, high tech, medicinalised practice. Yeah, she’s worked the the rise to dominance of the vaccine and is thus witness to the rise of all manner of collateral damage from this process.

Her story is a parallel with that of Uta Frith, which I wrote of as “Uta Faith” in “Vaccinology – voodoo science”. Uta does not include any reference to vaccine damage in her work, yet is a bastion of the medical establishment which deals with these outcomes. I argued that, as a result, her whole output is compromised and she seeks to manage and not prevent or seek cures for the sundry ailments.

Then one asks the questions as to whether vested interest comes in “I see no ships” style. I cannot stop this condition being created as we’d lose an excellent income stream subsequently………

OK, here is another. She mentions vaccination early in the following extract but only as context for the changes which were arising in her life’s practice. In conversation, I got from her an understanding that issues needed to be dealt with. “The MMR contains three live viruses and is going to be very difficult for the body to deal with – especially the immune compromised”. She went on to talk of individuals with “mitochondrial deficiency” as most, if not uniquely, susceptible and so, effectively, sidelined the issue. Thus, there are those who will be damaged, but they are a small and identifiable group, for whom separate provision can be made.

No, I do not accept that as even remotely the truth. Those with such inept mitochondria would be so chronically ill, they’d be dead, methinks. However, the increase in all collateral damage, which she would not label as such, she still has had to:
1 – Deal with

2 – Explain

3 – Heal as best a paediatrician can.

Her widespread searchings and much experience led her to finding unconventional routes and she talks of energies and healing powers in a very eastern style. Chakras she did not discuss but did say how the energies were everywhere and she had to draw them down to heal her clients.

So this is from her website and is the second half of the autobiographic note. I hope that I can find time to read some of the books and papers she gave me, that I can put far more substance onto this brief, passing resumee. Alternatively, she has much online and in print that you can peruse……………

 

So:

From : http://www.drursulaanderson.com/personal.php

A personal biography by Dr Ursula Anderson

 

Ursula was accepted into medical school when she was just 16. Following graduation she engaged Psychiatry and soon deserted it believing it was too much of a mechanical and blinkered approach to what, even then, she believed were the results of blights on the human soul.

However, her involvement with psychiatry led her to believe that these disorders of the soul began not only in infancy and childhood, but even before in the lives of their parents and forbears for countless generations before them. Her beliefs of course flew in the face of the commonly held theories about the causes of psychiatric disorders, which at that time were often referred to as madness or craziness. But all of this was good because it led to her romance and still vibrant love affair with Pediatrics, which she has practiced in England, Canada and The United States.

Not too long into her Pediatric practice she sensed that it was too focused on the present and not enough on the future. Immunizations and Antibiotics had changed and were continually changing the content of Pediatric practice, while changes in Society were delivering new problems for children and families.

 

Her research and publications on these burgeoning problems, including learning and behavioral disorders, teen and unwanted pregnancies and the emotional and spiritual damage children were enduring due to the breakdown of so called traditional families, led her in 1965 to ask The American Academy of Pediatrics to take these issues seriously and to create a Section on Community Health. This they did and the many programs deriving from this section are now the most productive programs for children across the USA.

The NEW MORBIDITY of which she spoke 35 years ago has now become the most important aspect of collective Pediatric endeavor. Along the way, as noted already, she drew attention to groups at high risk of morbidity and mortality resulting from unequal access to health care, particularly as this pertained to Mothers and Children. These efforts contributed in no small measure to the establishment of the 3-tiered approach to Peri-natal Care that is now accepted practice.

 

A word now about those who preceded her in their concern for Mothers and Children and on whose magnificent commitment and achievements she built her own brings an interesting historical note to her journey. Amongst the small band of courageous women who pestered and lobbied the United States Congress to establish a Federal Bureau that would overlook the welfare of children was Rose Hawthorne, the daughter of Nathaniel. One of Ursula’s first appointments following her years at Yale University was that of Pediatric Consultant for the state of North Carolina, which was funded by The Children’s Bureau which Rose Hawthorne and her compatriots founded in 1912. So not only was Ursula born in a house in England near to the one where Nathaniel Hawthorne had lived when he was American Consul in Liverpool, but his daughter also tangentially touched her life through the support she received for her work from funds allocated by the Children’s Bureau which Rose helped to established.

 

Ursula lost her parents and biological family at a relatively young age but she exults in the world wide family she has created not only through friends and colleagues but in a very special way with needy children. This latter flows from her own childhood when having lost so much during World War II, her parents could not afford to pay for her schooling, so an arrangement was made with the Loreto Nuns in Wales to take her as a school boarder on a learn now – pay later basis. Also there was an understanding that when her parents regained their financial stability, the Nuns would be reimbursed two-fold, which of course eventually took place (probably four-fold). However, several years later, remembering the anguish this had caused and after she started to earn money following the 13 years of her medical training (and in those days, specialist medical training put us on the poverty line) she started a program of scholarships and bursaries for children whose parents for various reasons, found themselves in the same situation as her Parents had been so many years ago. The first of these went to children attending the Loreto School that had helped her out, subsequently they were given directly to needy and deserving students mostly at the high school and college levels. So far numbering 29 in all. Many of these individuals have and are presently pursuing fulfilling and giving careers in many parts of the world. Additionally she has been surrogate Mum and Home to many troubled children and adults, a reaching out that reflects her belief in the inter-connectedness and inter-dependence of humanity and the LOVE of which she wrote 35 years ago.

 

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Offit’s awful. But here the truth slipped out…..

t

And he slyly looked up and spake the following words:

“You can never really say MMR doesn’t cause autism but when you get in front of media you’d better get used to it because otherwise people hear the door being left open when a door shouldn’t be left open…………..”

 

https://youtu.be/c2cHZa8t98w

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On the admix of hi-tech with voodoo!

Looking at a recently released “vaccine” for malaria, I was examining their adjuvanting systems, hidden within which are the same “we bow to the Almighty JENNERINTHESKY” found throughout this discipline.  So I collected this bunch of raw materials, from the journals, to establish my own review mechanism. I’ll entitle the work:

On the admix of hi-tech with voodoo!

Now, I am simply placing the afforementioned articles as a display – a kind of literary installation art work. Enjoy:

From: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3871206/

“Multiple clinical trials have evaluated the relative performance of AS01 and AS02 for the induction of CD4 T cell responses. Across a variety of antigens including those for malaria (RTS,S, and LSA-1), tuberculosis (M72), and HIV (gp120/Nef/Tat) there is a consistent finding that the liposome formulation AS01 induces a greater frequency of antigen specific TH1 cells than the squalene containing AS02 [13,14,49,50]. Most of these cells are multi-functional expressing combinations of IFN-γ, TNF, IL-2 and/or CD40L. Importantly this clinical finding was predicted in pre-clinical comparisons of AS01 and AS02 with the RTS,S antigen. In both mouse and primate models TH1 responses were enhanced to a greater degree with AS01 than AS02 [51,52], which correlated with the magnitude of protection against sporozoite challenge. The inclusion of the saponin QS21 in both AS01 and AS02, but not included in the adjuvants studied here may shape the selection of the optimal adjuvant formulation. Thus the selection of the optimal AS adjuvant cannot be directly compared to the present studies, yet both sets of data clearly demonstrate that adjuvant formulation plays a critical role in optimal vaccine development.”

And their conclusion has interesting insights!:

Based on the reproducible protective efficacy and strong TH1 response elicited by ID93/GLA-SE we have advanced the SE formulation of ID93/GLA into clinical trials to evaluate safety and immunogenicity in humans. However there were no clear reasons to eliminate either ID93/GLA-liposome or ID93/GLA-Alum based on the current data. The final selection of the optimal formulation of ID93/GLA among SE, liposome and Alum may require side-by-side testing in humans similar to what was required to select AS01 over AS02 for 72F and RTS,S for TB and malaria respectively. Other considerations for final adjuvant selection will depend on safety considerations and the likelihood of regulatory approval. To date the FDA has not approved oil-in-water based emulsions as vaccine adjuvants (although an FDA advisory committee recently recommended approval of GSK’s pandemic influenza vaccine containing AS03), whereas both alum and the alum-containing AS04 adjuvant are included in approved vaccines. Thus GLA-Alum may have a straightforward regulatory pathway compared to other adjuvant formulation platforms.

Then on “Liposomes as vaccine delivery systems: a review of the recent advances” there’s this:
Abstract

Liposomes and liposome-derived nanovesicles such as archaeosomes and virosomes have become important carrier systems in vaccine development and the interest for liposome-based vaccines has markedly increased.

A key advantage of liposomes, archaeosomes and virosomes in general, and liposome-based vaccine delivery systems in particular, is their versatility and plasticity.

Liposome composition and preparation can be chosen to achieve desired features such as selection of lipid, charge, size, size distribution, entrapment and location of antigens or adjuvants.

Depending on the chemical properties, water-soluble antigens (proteins, peptides, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, haptens) are entrapped within the aqueous inner space of liposomes, whereas lipophilic compounds (lipopeptides, antigens, adjuvants, linker molecules) are intercalated into the lipid bilayer and antigens or adjuvants can be attached to the liposome surface either by adsorption or stable chemical linking.

Coformulations containing different types of antigens or adjuvants can be combined with the parameters mentioned to tailor liposomal vaccines for individual applications.

Special emphasis is given in this review to cationic adjuvant liposome vaccine formulations.

Examples of vaccines made with CAF01, an adjuvant composed of the synthetic immune-stimulating mycobacterial cordfactor glycolipid trehalose dibehenate as immunomodulator and the cationic membrane forming molecule dimethyl dioctadecylammonium are presented.

Other vaccines such as cationic liposome–DNA complexes (CLDCs) and other adjuvants like muramyl dipeptide, monophosphoryl lipid A and listeriolysin O are mentioned as well.

The field of liposomes and liposome-based vaccines is vast. Therefore, this review concentrates on recent and relevant studies emphasizing current reports dealing with the most studied antigens and adjuvants, and pertinent examples of vaccines.

Studies on liposome-based veterinary vaccines and experimental therapeutic cancer vaccines are also summarized.

Liposomes and liposome-derived nanovesicles such as archaeosomes and virosomes have become important carrier systems in vaccine development and the interest for liposome-based vaccines has markedly increased. A key advantage of liposomes, archaeosomes and virosomes in general, and liposome-based vaccine delivery systems in particular, is their versatility and plasticity. Liposome composition and preparation can be chosen to achieve desired features such as selection of lipid, charge, size, size distribution, entrapment and location of antigens or adjuvants. Depending on the chemical properties, water-soluble antigens (proteins, peptides, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, haptens) are entrapped within the aqueous inner space of liposomes, whereas lipophilic compounds (lipopeptides, antigens, adjuvants, linker molecules) are intercalated into the lipid bilayer and antigens or adjuvants can be attached to the liposome surface either by adsorption or stable chemical linking. Coformulations containing different types of antigens or adjuvants can be combined with the parameters mentioned to tailor liposomal vaccines for individual applications. Special emphasis is given in this review to cationic adjuvant liposome vaccine formulations. Examples of vaccines made with CAF01, an adjuvant composed of the synthetic immune-stimulating mycobacterial cordfactor glycolipid trehalose dibehenate as immunomodulator and the cationic membrane forming molecule dimethyl dioctadecylammonium are presented. Other vaccines such as cationic liposome–DNA complexes (CLDCs) and other adjuvants like muramyl dipeptide, monophosphoryl lipid A and listeriolysin O are mentioned as well. The field of liposomes and liposome-based vaccines is vast. Therefore, this review concentrates on recent and relevant studies emphasizing current reports dealing with the most studied antigens and adjuvants, and pertinent examples of vaccines. Studies on liposome-based veterinary vaccines and experimental therapeutic cancer vaccines are also summarized.

 

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So, was the GREAT 1918 FLU EPIDEMIC just vaccine damage?

So, here’s a very forthright piece. The reason to look at historical references, like the Faroes measles epidemic discussed in the previous two posts and, again, here, is to demonstrate that the oh-so-confident-attitudes demonstrated by todays medical industry about the nature of their vaccination product and about the Godlike status of Jenner, how this is not a new phenomenon!

The source here is Dr. Rebecca Carley, in the US, who I am attempting to obtain reference materials from to support the following writings. Yes, they sound very, very plausible, you’ve only to think, for example, of Gulf War syndrome…….however, as a dedicated and soul searching scientist, I seek referencing, cross correlations and any other relevant supporting evidences.

Anyways, as ever, I have remoulded the writing to enable it to be a bit more user friendly but not altered its content to any significant way. I even left a few paragraphs at the end which are, shall I say, speculative, at best, but, hey, I also believe in allowing a certain amount of free expression!

I will, of course, add extra information as I obtain it but, for now, please enjoy the following:

The 1918 Influenza Epidemic was a Vaccine Caused Disease

Very few people realize that the worst epidemic ever to hit America, the Spanish Influenza of 1918 was the after effect of the massive nation-wide vaccine campaign. The doctors told the people that the disease was caused by germs. Viruses were not known at that time or they would have been blamed. Germs, bacteria and viruses, along with bacilli and a few other invisible organisms are the scapegoats, which the doctors like to blame for the things they do not understand.

If the doctor makes a wrong diagnosis and treatment, and kills the patient, he can always blame it on the germs, and say the patient didn’t get an early diagnosis and come to him in time.

If we check back in history to that 1918 flu period, we will see that it suddenly struck just after the end of World War I when our soldiers were returning home from overseas. That was the first war in which all the known vaccines were forced on all the servicemen. This mish-mash of poison drugs and putrid protein of which the vaccines were composed, caused such widespread disease and death among the soldiers that it was the common talk of the day, that more of our men were being killed by medical shots than by enemy shots from guns.

Thousands were invalided home or to military hospitals, as hopeless wrecks, before they ever saw a day of battle. The death and disease rate among the vaccinated soldiers was four times higher than among the unvaccinated civilians. But this did not stop the vaccine promoters. Vaccine has always been big business, and so it was continued doggedly.

It was a shorter war than the vaccine-makers had planned on, only about a year for us, so the vaccine promoters had a lot of unused, spoiling vaccines left over which they wanted to sell at a good profit. So they did what they usually do, they called a meeting behind closed doors, and plotted the whole sordid program, a nationwide (worldwide) vaccination drive using all their vaccines, and telling the people that the soldiers were coming home with many dread diseases contracted in foreign countries and that it was the patriotic duty of every man, woman and child to get “protected” by rushing down to the vaccination centers and having all the shots.

Most people believe their doctors and government officials, and do what they say. The result was, that almost the entire population submitted to the shots without question, and it was only a matter of hours until people began dropping dead in agony, while many others collapsed with a disease of such virulence that no one had ever seen anything like it before.

They had all the characteristics of the diseases they had been vaccinated against, the high fever, chills, pain, cramps, diarrhea, etc. of typhoid, and the pneumonia like lung and throat congestion of diphtheria and the vomiting, headache, weakness and misery of hepatitis from the jungle fever shots, and the outbreak of sores on the skin from the smallpox shots, along with paralysis from all the shots, etc.

The doctors were baffled, and claimed they didn’t know what caused the strange and deadly disease, and they certainly had no cure. They should have known the underlying cause was the vaccinations, because the same thing happened to the soldiers after they had their shots at camp. The typhoid fever shots caused a worse form of the disease, which they called para-typhoid.

Then they tried to suppress the symptoms of that one with a stronger vaccine, which caused a still more serious disease, which killed and disabled a great many men. The combination of all the poison vaccines fermenting together in the body, caused such violent reactions that they could not cope with the situation.

Disaster ran rampant in the camps.

Some of the military hospitals were filled with nothing but paralyzed soldiers, and they were called war casualties, even before they left American soil. I talked to some of the survivors of that vaccine onslaught when they returned home after the war, and they told of the horrors, not of the war itself, and battles, but of the sickness at camp.

The doctors didn’t want this massive vaccine disease to reflect on them, so they, agreed among themselves to call it Spanish Influenza. Spain was a far away place and some of the soldiers had been there, so the idea of calling it Spanish Influenza seemed to be a good way to lay the blame on someone else.

The Spanish resented having us name the world scourge on them. They knew the flu didn’t originate in their country.

20,000,000 died of that flu epidemic, worldwide, and it seemed to be almost universal or as far away as the vaccinations reached. Greece and a few other countries, which did not accept the vaccines, were the only ones that were not hit by the flu. Doesn’t that prove something?

At home (in the U.S.) the situation was the same; the only ones who escaped the influenza were those who had refused the vaccinations. My family and 1 were among the few who persisted in refusing the high pressure sales propaganda, and none of us had the flu not even a sniffle, in spite of the fact that it was all around us, and in the bitter cold of winter.
Everyone seemed to have it. The whole town was down sick and dying. The hospitals were closed because the doctors and nurses were down with the flu. Everything was closed, schools, businesses, post office everything. No one was on the streets. It was like a ghost town. There were no doctors to care for the sick, so my parents went from house to house doing what they could to help the stricken in any way they could. T

hey spent all day and part of the night for weeks, in the sick rooms, and came home only to eat and sleep. If germs or viruses, bacteria, or any other little organisms were the cause of that disease, they had plenty of opportunity to latch onto my parents and “lay them low” with the disease that had prostrated the world. But germs were not the cause of that or any other disease, so they didn’t “catch” it.

I have talked to a few other people since that time, who said they escaped the 1918 flu, so I asked if they had the shots, and in every case, they said they had never believed in shots and had never had any of them. Common sense tells us that all those toxic vaccines all mixed up together in people, could not help but cause extreme body-poisoning and poisoning of some kind or another is usually the cause of disease.

Whenever a person coughs or sneezes, most people cringe, thinking that the germs are being spread around in the air and will attack people. There is no need to fear those germs any more, because that is not the way colds are developed.

Germs can’t live apart from the cells (host) and can’t do harm anyway, even if they wanted to. They have no teeth to bite anyone, no poison pouches like snakes, mosquitoes or bees, and do not multiply, except in decomposed substances, so they are helpless to harm. As stated before, their purpose is useful, not destructive.
The 1918 flu was the most devastating disease we ever had, and it brought forth all the medical bag of tricks to quell it, but those added drugs, all of which are poisons, only intensified the over-poisoned condition of the people, so the treatments actually killed more than the flu did.

From:
https://spktruth2power.wordpress.com/2009/07/11/the-1918-influenza-epidemic-was-a-vaccine-caused-disease/

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The early days of an industry – an 1846 perspective on Ye Vaccinations……..

“Aha, aha, quoth he – I know what to do”

“At present it might be hoped that such a calamity could be at least partially prevented by vaccination. It is obvious, however, that the physical character of the country renders it peculiarly difficult to carry this out satisfactorily. It could scarcely be done in any other way than for the physician to divide the islands into perhaps five districts, and to look after the vaccination in one of these each year, by turns, by making a double tour, so that he would manage to reach each village twice, with eight days’ interim, the first time to perform the vaccination, the second to learn the results.

“But it would be unreasonable to require such an inconvenience of the appointed physician without a corresponding remuneration, since, apart from other hardships, by such a long absence from Thorshavn as would be involved, he would lose a part of the income from practice to which the medical practitioner would be entitled.

 

“This much, at least, is clear – that vaccination such as is now performed on the Faroe Islands is entirely unreliable and futile. The fact is that a rustic is delegated to travel around the country to vaccinate the children. For this purpose, he is provided with vaccine and a needle or lancet, and is instructed how to go about the operation. This rustic then engages in each village a man, who can write, to inspect the children eight days after vaccination and to write to the provincial surgeon as to whether or not the vaccine has taken.

“However, since on the one hand, it is quite doubtful, in fact in many cases even improbable, that the man who is to inspect the children has ever seen a characteristic vaccine pustule, and, on the other hand, there is [the] question as to whether, to serve his neighbour or countryman, he is not capable of telling a slight falsehood, [as] the inhabitants are often loath to have their children vaccinated, because they fear the grafting in of foreign diseases, and so on. [endp19]

 

“If, then, a complete reform is to be effected on the Faroe Islands in regard to vaccination, as is certainly most desirable, especially [as] freer conditions of trade are to be expected, it will not only have to be undertaken by the physician himself, in double trips as suggested above, but it must also be carried out for all persons without exception, so that certificates of vaccination hitherto issued should excuse none from this slight operation.”

 

The early days in the development of the Global Scam. Young Doctor Ludvig Panum went to the Faroe islands, betwixt Iceland and Norway, in 1846, to tend to/examine and describe a measles outbreak in which, overall, 102 people or 1.31% of the 7782 population died. In the same period 153 people died of other causes.

 

The original manuscript is here: file:///U:/PanumFaroeIslands.pdf.

(Thanks to Gareth Hawker for introducing to me this fine book!)

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That was a bit unfaroe…….

From Faroes Measles article by Dr Panum, 1846.

 On the vaccination issue wrt the Faroes measles epidemic (and noting there was no measles vaccine for around 120 years afterwards!)

At present it might be hoped that such a calamity could be at least partially prevented by vaccination. It is obvious, however, that the physical character of the country renders it peculiarly difficult to carry this out satisfactorily. It could scarcely be done in any other way than for the physician to divide the islands into perhaps five districts, and to look after the vaccination in one of these each year, by turns, by making a double tour, so that he would manage to reach each village twice, with eight days’ interim, the first time to perform the vaccination, the second to learn the results. But it would he unreasonable to require such an inconvenience of the appointed physician without a corresponding remuneration, since, apart from other hardships, by such a long absence from Thorshavn as would be involved, he would lose a part of the income from practice to which the medical practitioner would be entitled.

This much, at least, is clear; that vaccination such as is now performed on the Faroe Islands is entirely unreliable and futile. The fact is that a rustic is delegated to travel around the country to vaccinate the children; for this purpose, he is provided with vaccine and a needle or lancet, and is instructed how to go about the operation. This rustic then engages in each village a man, who can write, to inspect the children eight days after vaccination and to write to the provincial surgeon as to whether or not the vaccine has taken. However, since on the one hand, it is quite doubtful, in fact in many cases even improbable, that the man who is to inspect the children has ever seen a characteristic vaccine pustule, and, on the other hand, since there is a question as to whether to serve his neighbor or countryman he is not capable of telling a slight falsehood, seeing that the inhabitants are often loath to have their children vaccinated, because they fear the grafting in of foreign diseases, and so on, it may easily be perceived what is to he expected of such control.

If, then, a complete reform is to be effected on the Faroe Islands in regard to vaccination, as is certainly most desirable, especially if freer conditions of trade are to be expected, it will not only have to be undertaken by the physician himself, in double trips, as suggested above, but it must also be carried out for all persons without exception, so that certificates of vaccination hitherto issued should excuse none from this slight operation. Scarlatina (Scarlett Fever, I assume) has never, as far as I know, visited the Faroes, nor, probably, whooping cough, though the latter is recorded in 1838 in some of the church registers as a cause of death; For this information seems to have originated only from the fact that during the prevailing influenza epidemic, one or another priest mistook a violent catarrhal chest infection for whooping cough. Measles had not prevailed on the Faroes since 1781 then it broke out early in April 1846.

From: http://www.deltaomega.org/documents/PanumFaroeIslands.pdf

 

And, as I noted on “The Informed Parent” Facebook site:

Chris Hemmings OK, I’m going to be bogged down in the treasure trove that is the Faroes report, above, for some time! Initially, though, one has to observe that the population was in a very unhealthy state, chronically so. [As is very well documented in the Panum paper] Thus infections, when they arrived, knocked many out quickly. Same reason as measles still finishes off so many kids to this very day – in very poor, malnourished, clean water scarce, third world populations. Note, also, that even in such populations, the measles infection tends to only kill the very young – the final straw!

Why did the population stay in an unwell but soldiering on state for so long? I’d argue that they had plenty of local bacterial types with which there was conversation and to which the population as a whole was accustomed. What you could, indeed, call “herd immunity” if you had a wish to!

However, as there was no population based measles “colony”, there was no current familiarity with its characteristics.

Now, in a well fed, housed and engaged population, the reintroduction of such bacteriotypes should cause little duress – we all have, naturally, a fast response mechanism,  a detection, neutralisation and elimination system. In a chronically poor, malnourished, ill-housed and stressed population such responses are, understandably, severely compromised.

Hence the epidemic.

https://www.facebook.com/groups/226465094087290/permalink/1288721994528256/

 

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Stockholm Syndrome

OK, this is simply an extract and raw for future upgrading

Definition

Stockholm syndrome refers to a group of psychological symptoms that occur in some persons in a captive or hostage situation. It has received considerable media publicity in recent years because it has been used to explain the behaviour of such well known kidnapping victims as Patti Hearst (1974) and Elizabeth Smart (2002). The term takes its name from a bank robbery in Stockholm, Sweden, in August 1973. The robber took four employees from the bank (three women and one man) into the vault with him and kept them hostage for 131 hours.

After the employees were finally released they appeared to have formed a paradoxical emotional bond with their captor – they told reporters that they saw the police as their enemy, rather than the bank robber, and that they had positive feelings towards the criminal. The syndrome was first named by Nils Bejerot (1921-1988) a medical professor who specialised in addiction research and served as a psychiatric consultant during the standoff at the bank. Stockholm syndrome is known as Survival Identification Syndrome.

Description

Stockholm Syndrome is considered a complex reaction to a frightening situation, and experts do not agree completely on all its characteristic features or on the factors that make someone more susceptible  than others to developing it. One reason for the disagreement is that it would be unethical to test theories about the syndrome by experimenting on human beings.The data for understanding the syndrome are derived from actual hostage situations since 1973 that differ considerably from one another in terms of location, number of people involved and time frame.

Another source of disagreement concerns the extent to which the syndrome can be used  to explain other historical phenomena or more commonplace types of abusive relationships. Many researchers believe the Stockholm Syndrome helps to explain certain behaviours of survivors of WW2 concentration camps, members of religious cults, battered wives, incest survivors, and physically or emotionally abused children as well as people taken hostage by criminals or terrorists.

Most experts agree, however, that Stockholm Syndrome has three central characteristics.

  1. The hostages have negative feelings about the police or other authorities
  2. The hostages have positive feelings towards their captor(s).
  3. The captors develop positive feelings towards their hostage(s).

 

Causes and symptoms

Stockholm syndrome does not affect all hostages (or persons in comparable situations); in fact, a Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) study of over 1200 hostage-taking incidents found that 92% of the hostages did not develop Stockholm syndrome. FBI researchers then interviewed flight attendants who had been taken hostage during airplane hijackings, and concluded that three factors are necessary for the syndrome to develop:

  • The crisis situation lasts for several days or longer.
  • The hostage takers remain in contact with the hostages; that is, the hostages are not placed in a separate room.
  • The hostage takers show some kindness toward the hostages or at least refrain from harming them. Hostagesabused by captors typically feel anger toward them and do not usually develop the syndrome.

In addition, people who often feel helpless in other stressful life situations or are willing to do anything in order to surviveseem to be more susceptible to developing Stockholm syndrome if they are taken hostage.

People with Stockholm syndrome report the same symptoms as those diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder(PTSD): insomnia, nightmares, general irritability, difficulty concentrating, being easily startled, feelings of unreality orconfusion, inability to enjoy previously pleasurable experiences, increased distrust of others, and flashbacks.

Diagnosis

Stockholm syndrome is a descriptive term for a pattern of coping with a traumatic situation rather than a diagnosticcategory. Most psychiatrists would use the diagnostic criteria for acute stress disorder or posttraumatic stress disorderwhen evaluating a person with Stockholm syndrome.

Treatment

Treatment of Stockholm syndrome is the same as for PTSD, most commonly a combination of medications for short-term sleep disturbances and psychotherapy for the longer-term symptoms.

Key terms

Coping — In psychology, a term that refers to a person’s patterns of response to stress. Some patterns of coping maylower a person’s risk of developing Stockholm syndrome in a hostage situation.

Flashback —

The remergence of a traumatic memory as a vivid recollection of sounds, images, and sensationsassociated with the trauma. The person having the flashback typically feels as if they are reliving the event. Flashbackswere first described by doctors treating combat veterans of World War I (1914–1918).

Identification with an aggressor — In psychology, an unconscious process in which a person adopts the perspectiveor behavior patterns of a captor or abuser. Some researchers consider it a partial explanation of Stockholm syndrome.

Regression — In psychology, a return to earlier, usually childish or infantile, patterns of thought or behavior.

Syndrome — A set of symptoms that occur together.

Prognosis

The prognosis for recovery from Stockholm syndrome is generally good, but the length of treatment needed depends onseveral variables. These include the nature of the hostage situation; the length of time the crisis lasted, and theindividual patient’s general coping style and previous experience(s) of trauma.

Prevention

Prevention of Stockholm syndrome at the level of the larger society includes further development of crisis interventionskills on the part of law enforcement as well as strategies to prevent kidnapping or hostage-taking incidents in the firstplace. Prevention at the individual level is difficult as of the early 2000s because researchers have not been able toidentify all the factors that may place some persons at greater risk than others; in addition, they disagree on the specificpsychological mechanisms involved in Stockholm syndrome. Some regard the syndrome as a form of regression (returnto childish patterns of thought or action) while others explain it in terms of emotional paralysis (“frozen fright”) oridentification with the aggressor.

Resources

Books

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision.Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 2000.

Graham, Dee L. R., with Edna I. Rawlings and Roberta K. Rigsby. Loving to Survive, Chapter 1, “Love Thine Enemy:Hostages and Classic Stockholm Syndrome.” New York and London: New York University Press, 1994.

Herman, Judith, MD. Trauma and Recovery, 2nd ed., revised. New York: Basic Books, 1997. Chapter 4, “Captivity,” isparticularly helpful in understanding Stockholm syndrome.

Periodicals

Bejerot, Nils. “The Six-Day War in Stockholm.” New Scientist 61 (1974): 486-487.

Fuselier, G. Dwayne, PhD. “Placing the Stockholm Syndrome in Perspective.” FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (July1999): 23-26.

Grady, Denise. “Experts Look to Stockholm Syndrome on Why Girl Stayed.” International Herald Tribune, 17 March2003. A newspaper article about the Elizabeth Smart kidnapping case.

 

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